Реферати українською » Государство и право » Intellectual property. Objects author's and the adjacent rights


Реферат Intellectual property. Objects author's and the adjacent rights

>THEMINISTRYOFEDUCATIONOFRepublic ofBelarus

>THEABSTRACT

>On atheme: >Intellectualproperty.Objectsauthor's and theadjacentrights


>MINSK 2011


Theorigin of theterm ">intellectualproperty"oftencontacts the Frenchlegislation of the end of XVIIIcentury.Originallywasconsidered, that thepatent or theexclusiveright toproductuserepresent thecontractbetween asociety and theinventor (>author): thesocietyprotects thelegalowner,guaranteeing itcompensationforpromulgation of theinvention (>work of art) andagreeing toprovideitsunobstructed andexclusiveuse inindustrial orcommercialobjectives.Howeveralready JohnLockconsidered, that theintellectualpropertyrightshouldbeconsideredas thenaturalright,instead ofas therightbased on thelaw.

Thetraditionleantagainst thetheory of thenaturalright theapproach toauthor's and to apatentright,received themostconsecutivedevelopment inworks of the Frenchphilosophers-educators.According to thegrantedtheory theright of thefounder ofanycreativeresult, aliterarywork or theinventionisitsintegral, ">natural"right,arisesfrom thenature ofcreativeactivity and ">existsirrespective of arecognition ofthisright thegovernment". Therightarisingat thecreator to theresultreachedby itwasconsideredassimilar to thepropertyrightarisingat thepersonwhichworkcreates amaterialthing.

>In Franceat ">oldregime"for theauthor theright toliteraryworkshasbeendefinitivelyrecognised.Revolution of 1789dared all ">privileges"therefore ithasbeenproclaimed: ">Everything, that theauthoropensfor public,becomes a publicproperty" (theDecree of theConstituentassembly of 1789),butsooneven the newmodehasreconsidered thedecision.Twolaws (1791 and 1793)For thefirsttime inhistoryguaranteedprotection of allforms ofcreativity (>literary,drama,musical,graphic)atreproductionby allknownthenmethods.Inreport of ЛеШапельеwhichhaslaiddown in abasis of thefirstlaw,affirmed, that "themostsacred, themostincontestable andif itispossibleso tobeexpressed,mostpersonal of allpatterns ofownershipisproductwhichfruit ofliterarythought"is.In theprologue of the Frenchpatentlaw of 1791 itwassaid, that ">any newidea,declaration andwhichrealisationcanbeuseful to asociety,belongs to theone whohascreated it, andwouldberestriction ofhumanrightsnot toconsider the newindustrialinventionas theproperty ofitscreator".Fastening in the Frenchlegislation ofconcepts of theliterary andindustrialpropertybecame aconsequence ofsuchapproach.Evenearlier theideaabout the copyrightas "themostsacredkind of theproperty"hasbeenembodied inlaws ofseveralstates of the USA.So, in thelaw of the State ofMassachusettsfromMarch,17th, 1789 itwasspecified, that ">thereisno thepropertybelonging to thepersonmore,than thatwhichgrows out ofitsbrainwork").Similardesignshavebeenfixed in thelegislation ofmanycountries.In ">Legalphilosophy"underlinedspecialvalue ofprotection ofscientists andartistsfromanarbitrariness andencroachments ontheirrights,rendering ofprotection oftheirpropertyasproblems ofencouragement ofsciences andarts: ">justas themostimportantencouragements of theindustrytherewas amaintenancefromrobbery on thebigroad".Howeverphilosophicaljudgement of acategory ">intellectualproperty"tillnow ithasnotbeenmade.

>Alongwith theconcept (or adesign) in theform of therights of theindustrialproperty,literary,scientific, art or, in themostuniversalkind, -intellectualproperty, in thenationalright ofsome thecountries thecategory ">exclusiverights" ("theintellectualrights", ">protection of theindustrialrights", etc.),understoodas therights of aspecialsortiswidelyappliedconcerning therights toresults ofintellectualactivity.Especially itischaracteristicforGermany.

>For thefirsttime themention ofintellectualpropertyhasappeared in the Frenchlegislation ofanepoch ofGreat French revolution. Thetheory of thenaturalrightwhichessenceconsisted that allmadeby theperson,whether itbematerialobjects orresults ofcreativeactivity,admitteditspropertyatthistimedominated.Therefore thefounder ofresults ofcreativeactivityhad theexclusiveright todispose ofthem.

>In XIXcentury the copyright of the Frenchsamplehasservedasmodelforothercountries ofcontinental Europe, andalso,after theSecond WorldWar, andfor the Generaldeclaration ofhumanrights of 1948: ">Everyonehas theright toprotection ofitsmoralrights and thematerialinterestswhicharegrowing out ofscientific,literary or artworkswhichauthor itis".

>Somedistinctionsareconnectedwithexistence ofAnglo-American andcontinentalsystems of the copyright.After in XVIIIcenturyprotection ofproductsbegan toadmitfor thefirsttimenot the privilegegranted сувереном, and therightbased on thelaw,therewere twodirections ofscientificthought.

>One ofthem -school of thenaturalright -hasbeenapprehendedby thecountrieswithlegaltradition ofRome.Productadmittedbelonging to theauthorowing to thefact ofitscreation. Theattentionwasaccented onidea ofdistribution ofprotectionnotonly onproperty,butalso on thepersonalnon-propertyrights ofauthors.Lawsonly кодифікувалиnaturallyexistinghumanrights, in therightprotectioncentretherewas aperson of thefounder, thecreator.

>Meanwhile thegenerallawdeveloped inotherdirection.In thegenerallawcountries,mainly, in the USA and theGreatBritain, therightprovidedby agenerallawbased on "thenaturalpropertyrights" (>Lock'sclassicalformula)admitted.Howeveratcodification oftheserightsbylegislatorsonly limitedpropertyprotectionhasbeengivenauthors.Hand-writtenlawsnot кодифікували "thenaturalright", andhavesimplyreplaced it,initiallyhavingpresentedpropertyrights in theform of theurgentexclusiveright toreproduction. Thelawpurposeprotection ofpropertyrights offounders andpublisherswhichgot therightsat thefirstfounder oratitsassigneesadmittedfirst of all.Thus,founderscouldconcede allrights toproduct (>ifotherhasnotbeenprovidedby thecontract) inexchangeformonetarycompensation. Theapproachaccepted in theGreatBritain and the USA, on theessencedifferedfromformersystem ofprivileges alittle.

>Under theLaw of the USA on the copyrightreceiveprotectionsuchkinds ofproductswhich in thecountries of thecontinental copyrightareoftenprotected on thebasis ofsystems of theadjacentrights, inparticular,executors ofaudiovisualproductsareconsideredasauthors.Protection onAnglo-Americansystemextends onproductirrespective of acategory ofitslegalowner.Protection oncontinentalsystem of the copyrightisbased oncivillaw,itsbasicideaconsists thatproductsare aproduct ofcreativeactivity andinseparablylinkedwith theperson oftheirfounders.As aresult ofsuchapproach thelegislation ofsome thecountriesadhering tocontinentalsystem,didnotextend andrightprotection onlegalbodies.In thecentre ofregulation ofcontinentallegalsystemsthereis aprotection of thefounder ofproductwhile theAnglo-Americansystem of the copyrightisaimedatproductprotectionas that.Hence, in thelattercasetherewasnonecessityforanyconcept of theadjacentrightsastheserightswereregulatedby the copyright in abroadsense.

>In theXX-thcentury thegreatvaluewasgotby aquestion on theinternationalprotection ofcopyrights.Ithasled tocollision of twosystems andtheirconcepts.Graduallythereis acompelledrapprochement ofsystems.So, thelegislation on the copyrightwith aview ofprotection of thenon-propertyrights offounderswasnecessary toreconsider the USA;havegraduallystarted toadmit,though and on thebasis ofnumerousnorms of agenerallaw, thepersonalnon-propertyrights ofauthorsas asubject of therightprotectiongivenaccording to theBernconvention.Inturn, thecontinentalstatesbegan toprovideprotection to thelegalbodies whoarecarrying outfinancing ofcreativeactivity,recognisingnecessity ofsuchprotection,forexample,foreffectiveoperation of filmproduction.

>Furtherindustrialproduction andagriculturerapiddevelopment, andalsointernationaltrade andexchangegrowthbetween thecountries lastachievements of science andtechnologyhavedemandedhigherdegree oflegalregulation of theinternational relations inintellectualpropertysphere.

>As aresult of it, inmanycountries of the worldconcerningprotection of principalviews ofintellectualpropertybegan toappearinternational договори.So,forexample, onMarch,20th, 1883 inParis theConvention onprotection of theindustrialproperty ">whichbecame thebasicdocument in thefield ofprotection of therights tointellectualpropertyhasbeenaccepted". TheBernconvention onprotectionliterary andworks of art ">fromSeptember,9th, 1886was thefollowingdocument insystem ofprotection ofintellectualproperty".Further, themajoragreement in thefield ofintellectualpropertyprotection, theprisoneralso in the lastcentury inMadrid onApril,14th, 1891 "theAgreement on theinternationalregistration ofsigns"

>However, allthesedocuments,protecting themajorobjects ofintellectualproperty,didnotcomprise theconcept ">Intellectualproperty".For thefirsttime ithasbeenentered ininternationallegal договориby "theConventionestablishing the worldorganisation ofintellectualproperty",signed inStockholm onJuly,14th, 1967 andchanged onOctober,2nd, 1979.

>In thepre-revolutionaryRussianlegislation theterm ">intellectualproperty"wasnotused.For theauthor, theowner of the privilege (>patent) or theperson whohascarried outregistration,for thepurpose offastening tothemmonopoliesforuse ofsomeresults ofintellectualcreativeactivity orindividualizationmeansadmitted thepropertycompetencesmaking themaintenance ofexclusiverights.Exclusiverightsmadeindependentcivillaw.

>In theconditions of asocialistway ofmanufactureexclusiverightshavelostfunctions ofinstitutes ofmarketeconomy,therefore and theterm ">exclusiverights" in theSovietlegislationwasnotused.

Theterm ">intellectualproperty" in the USSRhasappearedfor thefirsttime in theLawfromMarch,6th 1990 р. «>About theproperty in the USSR», andthen in theLaw of theRussianFederationfromDecember,24th 1990 р. «>About theproperty inRSFSR» and in theLaw ofByelorussiafromDecember,11th 1990 р. «About theproperty in БРСР ». Thecivilcode of 1964containedsections" theCopyright "," theRight to opening "," theRight to theinvention, theefficiencyproposal and theindustrialsample ".However inthemterms"intellectualproperty "and" theindustrialproperty ">werenotused.Moreover,sections of theCivilcode" theRight to opening "and" theRight to theinvention, theefficiencyproposal and theindustrialsample ">havebecomeinvalid inconnectionwithacceptance in 1993 ofLaws ofByelorussia"Aboutpatentsforinventions ","Aboutpatentsfor theindustrialsample ","Abouttrademarks and servicemarks ", andalsomanypositions ofsection"Copyright"inconnectionwithacceptance in 1995 of theLaw ofByelorussia"About the copyright and theadjacentrights ".Theselawshaveradicallychanged theapproach tointellectualproperty in thecountry,asmuchaspossiblehavingapproached thelegislation inthisarea to thestandardinternationalstandards.

>In the newCivilcode ofByelorussia itisaccuratelylookedthroughalreadydeveloped >civillaw:exclusiverights toresults ofintellectualactivity (>intellectualproperty).

>Objects of the copyright and theadjacentrights

The copyrightis thelegaltermdesignating therights,given toauthorsliterary andworks of art. The copyrightextends onproducts of a science, theliterature and theartswhicharegrowing out ofcreativeactivity,irrespective ofappointment andadvantage ofproduct, andalsofrom away ofitsexpression. The copyrightextendsboth onpromulgated, and on theunpublishedproductsexisting inanyobjectiveform:

1)written (themanuscript,typewriting, amusicalnotation etc.);

2)oral (publicpronouncing, publicexecution etc.);

3)videorecordings (>mechanical,magnetic,digital,optical etc.);

4)images (>drawing, thesketch, apicture, theplan, thedrawing,cinema - abody – video etc.);

5)volume-spatial (asculpture,model, abreadboardmodel, aconstruction etc.)etc.The copyrightdoesnotextend onactuallyideas,methods,processes,systems,ways,concepts,principles, opening, thefacts.

>According to thelegislation oncopyrights ofByelorussia toobject of the copyright itisnecessary tocarry:

1)literaryworks (>books,brochures,articles, etc.);

2)drama andismusical-dramaproducts,choreography andpantomimeproducts andothers сценарніproducts;

3)pieces of musicwith thetext andwithout thetext;

4)audiovisualproducts (>cinema - abody - videofilms,filmstripsbothotherfilm-andtele-products);

5)products of asculpture, painting, adrawing,lithograph andotherproducts of thefinearts;

6)applied artproducts;

7)products ofarchitecture,town-planning andlandscapegardening art;

8)photographicproducts and theproductsreceived in theways,similar to aphoto;

9)cards,plans,sketches,illustrations and theplasticproductsconcerninggeography,topography andothersciences;

10)computerprograms;

11)otherproducts.

>Protection ofcomputerprogramsextends on allkinds ofcomputerprograms (>includingoperationalsystems)whichcanbeexpressed inanylanguage and inanyform,including theinitialtext andanobjectivecode.

>Objects of the copyrightalsoconcern:

1)derivativeproducts (>transfers,processings,summaries,abstracts, theresume,reviews,performances,musicalarrangements andotherprocessings ofproducts of a science, theliterature and art);

2)collections (>anthologies,databases) andothercompoundproductsrepresenting onselection oranarrangement ofmaterialsresult ofcreativeactivity.

The copyright and theadjacentrightsarenecessaryconditions ofdevelopment ofcreativity,giving toauthorsstimulus in theform of arecognition andfairmaterialcompensation.Thissystem ofprotection of therightsprovides toauthors aguarantee ofdistribution oftheirproductswithoutfear ofnotmanufacturing ofcopies or apiracy.And it, inturn,providesmoreaneasyapproach of thepopulation of thecountries of the world toculturalvalues, toknowledge andentertainments, andalsoguaranteestheirhigherquality.

Theadjacentrightsare therightswhichbelong toexecutors, tomanufacturers ofsoundtracks and theon-airbroadcastingorganisationsaccordinglyconcerningtheirexecutions,soundtracks andtele-broadcasts.

Theadjacentrightsdifferfrom the copyright thattheybelong toowners whoareconsideredasintermediariesatmanufacturing,record ordistribution ofproducts. Communicationwith the copyrightiscausedby thatfact, thatthreecategories ofowners of theadjacentrightsareauxiliarylinks in thecourse ofintellectualcreativityastheyassistauthorsat the message ofproducts of the lastforgeneraldata. Themusicianexecutes apiece of musicwrittenby thecomposer; theactorplays arole in theplaywrittenby theplaywright;manufacturers ofsoundtracks ormoreoftennamedas «thewritingdownindustry»writedown andlet outsongs and the music,writtenbyauthors and thecomposers,executedbymusicians orsingers; theon-airbroadcastingorganisationstransferproducts andsoundtracks on the radio ortelevisionbroadcastingstations.

>Inсоответствііfromitem 994 ДК theadjacentrightsextend onexecutions,statements,soundtracks,transfers of theorganisations of a radio andcableannouncement.Foroccurrence andrealisation of theadjacentrights itisnotrequiredobservance ofanyformalities. The copyright and theadjacentrightsarenecessaryconditions ofdevelopment ofcreativity,giving toauthorsstimulus in theform of arecognition andfairmaterialcompensation.Thissystem ofprotection of therightsprovides toauthors aguarantee ofdistribution oftheirproductswithoutfear ofnotauthorisedmanufacturing ofcopies or apiracy, and it, inturn,providesmoreaneasyapproach of thepopulation of thecountries of the world toculturalvalues, toknowledge andentertainments, andalsoguaranteestheirhigherquality.

>objectrightintellectualproperty


Theliterature

1. The copyright and theadjacentrights.Laws,conventions, договори andagreements. -Minsk, 2010.

2.Intellectualproperty. Thebasicmaterials:In 2parts theTranslationfrom English,Novosibirsk, 1993

3.Intellectualproperty. TheDictionary-directory/under theeditorship ofA.D.Korchagina. -m, 2011.

4.SavelyevI.V.legalregulation of relations in thefield of artcreativity. - М, 2009.

5.SerebrovskyV.I.Voprosy of theSoviet copyright. - М, 1956.

6.SergeysA.P.intellectual in theRussianFederation.TH., 2008.

7.TchernyshevS.A.author's thecontract. - М, 2011.


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