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Our Country

Britain, is .only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The

winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and sunny. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of salmon. Edinburgh, Scotland's capital, is very beautiful. The heart

of the city is the castle, where the kings of Scotland lived for cen turies. Edinburgh has a busy cultural life. Every year, in August,

the International Festival takes place. Musicians, actors and singers come from all over the world and thousands of visitors fill the city. In the evening, the opera house, the theatres and concert halls are

full. In cafes and pubs, small groups sing, act and read poetry. The castle is at its best in Festival tune.Every night there is a magnifi cent military Tattoo. Highland soldiers wearing kilts play the bagpipes and march to the music. Tartans, the patterns of the kilts, have an interesting history. Since the fifteenth century, each Scot tish family (or clan') has worn its own tartan as a kindof badge. It was a useful way of recognising people, especially in times of war.

Many tartans date only from the nineteenth century, but some of the old patterns still exist. Dress tartans, worn on special occa sions, have light, bright colours. Hunting tartans are usually green, blue, or brown. Wales is a country of high mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has plenty of industry, too. There are.many factories and coal mines there. The people of Wales are very musical. Every year they have a festival of Welsh music and poetry called an Eisteddfod.

A hundred years ago the north of England was the industrial heart of the country. The old factories have gone now and the workers have to look for Jobs in the newhigh-tech industries. The centre of England (the Midlands) is also an important industrial area, espe cially near the huge cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of

car industry. The west of England is a rich farming country. It pro duces milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples. Northern Island is beautiful too. In the warm, wet climate n of the land is farming.

Britain is an island and there is no place to be too far fronr sea. Some of the coast, especially in the west, is wild and ro with small, sandy beaches, and romantic harbours.


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Problems of city and coutry life

The saga of discovery and settlement of the New Worid, begun by European's in the late 15th century, lasted more than 200 years. Snccessive transatlantic crossings, first into the Caribbean and then to the coast of Canada and along the coast of South America, describe the general pattern of exploration by the Spanish, Portuguese, falians, French, and English. Several factors made the Age of Ex ploration possible. Medieval cartographers placed Jerusalem at the center of the earth. But in the 15th century. Western scholars rediscovered Ptolemy's Geography, with its maps of a semispheric earth that accurately located all distant places. Improvements in

equipment enabled the construction of larger, more manoeuvrable ships.In-the East Europeans were cut off from land routes to India and China. The need for new avenues of trade with the Far East led to theseafaring explorations of the Age of Discovery.

In 1492 the Italian Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic in a Spanish-backed attempt to find a new trading route to the Far East. While that objective went unfulfilled, subsequent voyages by explorers did much to reveal both the complexities of transatlantic navigation and the nature of the New World. Simultaneously, Portuguese seafarers led by Bartolomeu Dias had pushed southward to the Cape of Good Hope, mapping the entire western coast of Africa in the process and proving the existence of a sea route between Europe and India. In 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian sea captain, completed the first recorded transatlantic voyage by an English vessel, while attempting to find a north-west passage to Asia. Cabot died during the second attempt to find a direct route to Cathay in 1498. Althoughl Sebastian Cabot continued his father's explorations in the Hudson Bay region in 1508-1509, England's interest in the New World waned. However, Cabot's voyages established England's belated claim to America, In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan discovered the strait, now bearing his name, that links the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The discovery of Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America was made in 1578 by the English navigator Francis Drake; this provided a more suitable route for trading ships.

Colonisation followed exploration, and, as isolated outposts gave way to larger protected settlements and military garrisons in the 17th and l8th centuries, the tide of colonists to the New World and the exploitation of natural resources from both land and sea increased. The explorers were inspired by curiosity and the desire tc become wealthy. The Age of Exploration enriched Europe.


saga - New World -

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Education and future profession

The seventeenth century was the time of the development of various branches of science. The new mood had been established by Francis Bacon. Bacon was a lawyer who entered Parliament early and became James I's Lord Chancellor. Bacon bad a wide range of scholarly interests. He had the reputation of being the most learned man of his time. Francis Bacon's goal was synthesis. He wanted to organize 'all knowledge' in a united whole. He defined the scientific method in a form that is still relevant and stimulates the growth of science. Every scientific idea, he argued, must be tested by experiment. With idea and experiment following one the other, the whole natural world would be understood. In the rest of the century British scientists put these ideas into practice.

Bacon made a great contribution to historical writing. He was a master stylist - his scientific works can be read with pleasure, as literature. He saw himself as an intellectual Columbus, revealing new world of science to his contemporaries, and bringing back hips freighted with useful knowledge. In his New Atlantis Bacon described an island governed by an Academy of Sciences, founded 'for the knowledge of causes, and secret motion of things; and the enlarging the bounds of human empire, to the effecting of all things possible'. This is the most accessible and exciting of his writings on science.

In his essay Of Study Francis Bacon regards studies as they should be: for pleasure, for self-improvement, for business. He considers the evils of excess study: laziness, affectation, and preciosity. Bacon divides books into three categories; those to be read in part, those to be read casually, and those to be read with care. Studies should include reading, which gives depth: speaking, which adds readiness of thought; and writing, which trains in preciseness. The author ascribes certain virtues to individual fields of study: wisdom to history, wit to poetry, subtlety to mathematics, and depth to natural philosophy. This essay has intellectual appeal indeed.

Meanwhile, scientists, were demystifying the universe. Nobody knows for sure who invented the telescope, but Galileo Galilei had built one of his own. With it he was able to confirm the heretical speculations of Copernicus, Kepler and Tyeho Brahe that the sun, not the earth, was the center of our universe. The specific origins of the microscope are equally obscure. In the 17th century. Robe Hooke used it to describe accurately the anatomy of a flea and the design of a feather; Antonie de Leeuwenhoek discovered a world of wriggling organisms in a drop of water. The invention of logarithms and calculus led to more accurate clocks and optical instruments.

By 1700 Galileo, Rene Descartes, Sir Isaac Newton and other scientists had clarified the principles by which machines work. Henceforth Western civilization's technological supremacy was beyond challenge. Mechanical invention led inevitably to another step in the West's commercial and political hegemony over the world: the Industrial Revolution.


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Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)


In 1605 the first Europeans came to Manhattan island from Holland. In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam bought the island from the Native Americans for a few glass necklaces, valued about twenty-four dollars today. In 1609 Henry Hudson entered the River of the Mountains. In 1613 the Dutch-built: only four small houses on Manhattans a fur trading station. It was not until 1623, ten years more, that they started a real settlement, town of New Amsterdam in honour of the capital of their country in Europe. In 1644 when the English acquired the island, the village New Amsterdam was renamed New York. Today Manhattan is the heart of America's business and culture. It is the most important banking re in the world. Fewer than two million of the city's eight million people live on the island.

In 1789 on the steps of Federal Hall George Washington took the oath of office when he became the first president of the United States of America. During the years 1785 to 1790 New York was the capital of the United States. Due to its natural advantages as a our, and the rising tide of immigration from all parts of the world the role of New York as the leading city accelerated. Villages grew throughout the entire area.

For the visitor New York means skyscrapers, tremendous traffic, dazzling neon advertisements. Manhattan is full of parallel rows of buildings, those running from north to south are called avenues while those running from east to west are called streets. avenues and streets have only numbers instead of names. Wall Street from its very beginning became the market place of money. It was here that a walled stockade was erected to repulse the Indians its name. As the city expanded the stockade was dismantled as of no further use, but the market place for the purchase of bonds and securities remained.

Like every big city, New York has its own traffic system. Traffic can be terrible, and it is usually quicker to go by subway. It goes to almost every comer of Manhattan. New York is an inter national city, the place to try something new. It may be an experience you will never forget.


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