» » english


english

>INTRODUCTION

 

>Wemayhave thegreathonour tobepresentat thedecline ofprintingassuch. Thebooksas the masspastimehavebeenoustedfromourlivesforseveraldecadesalready.Modernelectronic mass media (radio,television)areoustingbooksmore andmore; thebookshelves inpeopleshomesaregettingsparse.However,severalhundredsyearsago theinvention ofprintingwas theinitialfactor thatatoncechanged allconditions of theintellectual life of Western Europe.

Thepresentpaperisanattemptatseeingconnectionsbetween theinvention ofprinting andone of themostsignificantevents in the life ofmediaeval Europe theReformation. Thefighting of theCatholicchurchagainstbooks and thecreation of thepowerfulinstitution ofcensorshipwillbeviewed.Therewillalsobeanattempt toview howprintingstimulated thegrowth ofnationalconscience and theforming ofliterarylanguage.Besides that, thedevelopment of political science in the 16>thcentury and theformation of thebases of thefuturemiddleclass and thebasic politicalpartieswillbetouchedupon.

>PRINTING

Books

>In Europe thebooksbecamecheaper andmorewidespreadwhen theuse ofpaperbecamemorefrequent,especiallyas astrongrise ofintellectual life ofsocietywenttogetherwiththisafter thecrusades and thedevelopment ofuniversities.In the 13>thcenturytherewas aspecial post in theuniversities, theso-calledSTATIONARII.Thesepeopleurgedstudents tocopybooks,tookbooks oncommissionfrom theJewishusurers whodidnothave theright tosellbooksthemselves andfromleavingstudents;therefore thestationariiwere thefirstbooksellers in new Europe.In thebeginning of the 14>thcentury inParis thebooksellersassuchseparatedfrom theStationarii;buteventheystillgaveoath to theuniversity andweresubordinate to it.In the end of the 14>th and thebeginning of the 15>thcentury in the >Latinquarterwholehouses andsidestreetswereinhabitedbybook-copiers,calligraphers,bookbinders,parchment-makers,paper-sellers.In 1403text-writers in Londonunitedinto aspecialguild; thesamethinghappened insomeplaces inHollandaswell.In the 15>thcentury inItalytherewerebooksellers whokept alargenumber ofscribes intheirstores,sotheycouldpublishbooksevenbefore theinvention ofprinting.Atthistime in allbigcities of Europetherewere publiclibrarieswherebookscouldbe takenhome (>librivagantes),whereasotherbooks,especiallyvaluable andvoluminousoneswereattached towritingdeskswithironchains.Already in the 15>thcenturyalmosteverywheretherewerebooksellers andcorporations ofbook-copiers whotried tosatisfy theneedsnotonly ofrichpeople,but ofpeoplewithmediumincomeaswell. Thebookssoldwerebooks ofprayers,didactic andsecular (>entertaining)books.Butstill,if alaymanstartedreading orevencopyingbooksat thetime,hedid itbasicallynotfor hisownpleasure andnotforeducation. Hewasmostprobablyinterested in thematter ofsaving hissoul.

Theinvention ofprintingconsiderablylowered thevalue ofmanuscripts;buttheirproductiondidnotdecreaseimmediately,asfirstprintedbooksweremerecopies of contemporarymanuscripts.Richbook-lovers of thetimecouldalsoprefermanuscripts,whichwereusuallymadebyfamousmasters andrichlydecorated.Nevertheless, thecalligraphersstrugglewith theprintingpresswashopeless: a new,powerfulindustryappeared in the world.

>Itcanbesaid that in 17>thcentury thebookbecamedemocratic. Theprintingpressmade itavailable and thedemandmade itinterestingfor the massbuyer.In the 17>thcentury thebookpenetrates allestates, itbecomesbothinteresting andinstructive.

>Itisnatural that in the 17>thcenturybecause of theimprovements inprinting business theproduction ofbooksmakesprogress inquality,cheapness andbeauty. Thebookputs on awig and allruns inallegory andconventionality. (H.Bouchot. Lelivre,lillustration, lareliure. >Paris 1886).

>One of themostimportantepochs in thedevelopment ofprintingwas the 19>thcentury.In thefirstquarter of the 19>th agoodbookstarted tobringgood money toitsauthor whostarted togetroyaltiesnotfromseparaterichpeople or thegovernmentbutfrom thebuyers.Famouswritersbecomerichmen and,provided theconditionsarefavourableeven amediocreworkergetspossibilitiesforcomfortableexistencethanks to thebook.Itmustbe in thebeginning of the 19>thcenturywhenpeoplebegan togive theword >writer thesamemeaningaswedonow.

>On theotherhand, theprofitableindustrystartedbringingdecentincome topublishers.Now thepublishersthinkover the problem ofmaking agoodbookcheaper,so thateverypersoncouldform a privatelibrarywithoutspecialexpenditures.

>Finally, in the 19>thcentury thebookbecomes apowerful politicalweapon.

>Itmaybesaid thatfor thefirsttime theinfluence of theinvention ofprintingbecameobvious inItaly. Thecitizens ofItaly in the 14>thcenturysearchedfor,collected andcopiedancientmanuscriptswithgreatenthusiasm.ThishobbymusthavespreadfromItaly toother Western Europeancountries.Thereis awell-knownsaying >Aninventionis thechild ofnecessity and itwasprobablyanunusual passionforclassicalwritersat thetime,whichdrovehuman,thought tothink outmechanicways ofreproduction ofworks of fiction.Theirwearingcopyingbyhandscouldnotsatisfy therisenneeds.In 1500printingwaspracticedalready in 18 Western Europeancountries, and in thecultural world of thetimetherewere up to 240townswhichhadtheirownprinting-houses. Booksbecamerelativelycheap, and thecircle ofpeople whopartook ofthoughts of thegreatestwits ofantiquitybyway ofreadingimmenselybroadened.Undoubtedly,havingreceivedsuchgreatamount of information,humanthoughtstartedworkingfasterthaneverbefore.Atleast, thementaloutlook of the mass thatdirectly orindirectlyparticipated inintellectualmovementsbroadened.

Thechurchas themainguard ofmediaevaltraditionsreceived thefirststrikefromprinting. The success ofsuch agreatas theReformationcannotsurelybereduced to theinvention ofprintingonly.However,onecannotbeimaginedwithout theother.One of thereasons of the success of theReformationpropagandawas theavailability ofbooks.Lutherhimselfcalled theinvention ofprinting the secondredemption of thehumankindnotwithoutreason ( .. . 1913. . 3).Lutherdid alot in thesphere ofprintinghimself,though. Hedemocratized thebook andassisted in thespread ofbooks ofsmallformat andsmallvolume, and theso-calledpamphlets orbrochuresaswell (>Flugschrift).Itmaybesaid thatLutherdid a revolution inprinting,thisevendisregarding thepublishing of theBible.Forexample,if in Europeby 1500 >notmorethan 25,000bookshadbeenpublished ( , , 1911, . 368 . 24),then 4,000copies ofLuthersAppeal to theChristianNobility of theGermanNationweresold infivedays.MediaevalCatholicismwasnotonly areligion; itestablishedlimits to thewholeculture andsocialorganization of themediaevalcatholicpeoples.During theperiod of theReformationbookprintingrebelledagainstone of thefoundations of themediaevalCatholicism, andnamelyagainst theuniversalism and thedenial ofnationality. TheReformationfirstgave thepossibility toread theHolyScripture anddodivine service inonesmothertongue.

>Thatiswhy insomecountriesprintingstartedfrom theBible (>e.g. inEstonia in 1535).Printinghelped thenationalcharacter of the 16>thcenturyReformation tobecomeapparent.And thepossibility tododivine service inonesmothertonguethanks tobooksalsoplayeditspart innationaloppositions toRome.Besides that,manypublicisticworks of thetimeweredirectedagainstCatholicism (>Darkpeoplesletters).Itisnotimpossible that,aswecannotspeakabout thehistory of theReformationbeginningwith 17>thcenturybecauseeven theReformators of the 17>th >centurythemselveswereaware thattheyhadhad thepredecessors, itwasdue toprinting that theReformatorsmanaged totearwholenationsawayfromRome,whichtheirforerunnershadnotbeenable todo.

>Can itbesupposed thatprintingbecameverydangerousfor theCatholicchurch, andif theanswerisyes,thenwhendid thechurchresort tocounter-measures? Thehistory of Europeancensorshipmayhelp inviewingthismatter.

>Differentscholarstreatcensorshiplawdevelopmentdifferently,buttheyagree inone: puttingbordersbetween theprevious and thefollowingepochs to theinvention ofprinting (> . , 1981 . 96.).

>Censorshipwasbornlongbefore theappearance ofprinting.Lookingatitsmainobjectivesbeginningfrom the 14>th >centuryonecansee itas themeansusedby thechurchforfightingagainstheresies and thedistortion ofholybooks.Forexample, in thereign ofPopeUrban VI in the 14>thcentury itwasprescribed to lookthrough and toapproveforuseonlythosebooks thatwerecopiedcorrectly anddidnotcontainanything thatdidnotcorrespond to thechurchdogmas.

Theinvention ofprintingmusthaveprovidedseriousproblemsfor thechurch,asalready in 1471PopeSixt IVprescribed thatnot asinglebook ofspiritualcontextcouldbepublishedwithout thepreliminarypermission of thechurchauthorities.Somearchbishopsbegan tointroducepreliminarycensorship. Thestrengthening ofcensorshipnaturallyfell to thetime of thebeginning of thegreateststrugglebetween theCatholicchurch and thereformers thatare in the 14>thcentury. Thegovernmentsalsotookmeasures toguide the power ofprint totheirbenefit andprotectthemselvesfromharm thatcouldbedoneby thebook. Thebooksunavoidablypromoted theintellectualdevelopment of thepeople,mutual relations andurgedpeople tocompose andcriticize.These >dangeroussides of theprinting businesslead to theattempts of the state and thechurchatintroducing controloverbookprinting.From the 16>thcentury oncensorshipstarts tobedoneby thesecularauthoritiesaswellsidebysidewithchurchauthorities (>for thefirsttime in thereign ofCharles V).In the end of the 16>thcenturythereisalreadycensorship in all Western Europeancountrieswheretherewereprintinghouses.Though inEngland,forexample,according to thelaw of 1542printing ofbooks ofsecularcontentswasdeclared free.However, ahundredyearsdidnotpasswhen in 1637 a newdecreedeclared freefromprosecutiononly theissues thathadbeenprintedonlywith thepermission ofparticularcensoringorgans.In France in thereign ofFrancois Ianattemptwasmade toprohibitprintinghousesat all.But thebooksproved tobesointeresting andusefulfor themiddleclasses ofpopulation, that thebanturned out tobefutile: thebookswereobtained andprintedbeyond thelaw.Nevertheless,measures ofthiskindaswellassofterways ofinfluenceslowered thedevelopment ofprintingconsiderably.Printing,however,playedone of themostsignificantparts in thespread ofReformation, andwithout theinfluence ofprintingno politicaleventsmightnothavehappened. Thevictory of theReformation inmanycountriesmostprobablydidnotweakensuspiciousness on thepart of the state,but itdirected theattention ofauthorities to thefact thatprintingmaybeveryusefulfor it.Censoringinstitutesarebecomingstronger, andonemoresmall revolutionisbeingdone: theofficialprintisbeingcreated.On theonehand theofficialprintwascertainlynecessaryforanycultural state,however,togetherwithcensorship andbribing of the privatebookprinting,thisled to thedecrease of theenlighteningfunction ofprint.Regarding massmovement of thetime of theReformation in Europeas thebeginning of theway of thebook, itcanbesaid thatalready in ahundredyearstime thesituationforprintingbecomesmoredifficult. The common politicalreaction thatgoverned Europeeverywhere in the 17>thcenturyreflecteddeadly on thefates ofbooks in allcountries. The 17>thcenturymaybeconsidered thetimewhencensorshipwasestablishedeverywhere.Thispartlyled to thedevelopment ofprinting inHolland,whichwas thefreestcountryat thetime.On theotherhand, the stateauthoritiesweremoreworriedbysmall andcheapliteraryworks of thepublicisticnature,whichwereavailablefor aratherbroadcircle ofreaders and,thereforecapable toarouseexcitement.Thatiswhycensorshipdidnotpreventpublishing ofbooksaimedat thebroadcircle ofreaders inparticularscientificworks orsomeexpensiveissues.

TheReformation andbookprintingareconnectedwitheachother. Theprintedwordhelpedone of themostimportantevents ofmodernhistory tohappen.And theReformationcannotlikelybecalledonly areligiousmovement.Thus,obtainingeven theclericalliterature inonesmothertongue, thepossibility tododivine service inonesownlanguagefavoured thegrowth ofnationalself-consciousness.However,any publicmovementat thetimeinvolvedreaction.Inparticular, theconnectionmaybetracedbetween theinfluence ofprinting to the success of theReformation and awholenumber ofreligiouswars thatfollowed thedivision of Europe on twocamps: theCatholicone and theProtestantone.At thetime theCatholics ofdifferentcountriesjoinedeffortsrelying on the power ofSpain,whichcaused theProtestants ofdifferentcountries touniteaswell.

>Bookprinting, in thesameindirectway,alsoobviouslyled to thereforming of theCatholicchurchitself.Before thebeginning of theReformation theCatholicismwasunorganized,but theincentivefromoutsideled tore-organization of theCatholicchurch. TheJesuitsorderwascreated, TheHigherCourt ofInquisitionwasestablished inRome, the list offorbiddenbookswascompiled, and thestrictbookcensorshipwasorganized.Onemorefactpointsat thesignificance of thebook in thestrugglebetween theReformation and theCatholicchurch.When inmay of 1521EmperorCharles VissuedanedictwhichproclaimedLutheranoutlawas aheretic and apersondisobedient to theauthorities.Lutherhid in thecastle ofWartburg. Hedidnotprepare arebellionthere,though.Luther,mostlikelywasbusywithwhathehimselfconsidered themostimportant:hebegantranslating theBibleintoGerman.Notonlydidthisresult in theappearance inGermany of themostimportantbook inGerman.One of themainsuccesses ofthistranslationwas thefoundation of theGermanliterarylanguage. >Notonlydidhe [>Luther]promote the success of theReformation,buthelaid thefoundation of theliteraryGermanlanguageaswell (N.Kolsnitskiy. >Germany in XV XVIIcenturies. Moscow, 1980.p. 119). Theanalogoussituationoccurred inmanycountries. Theunifiedsystem ofprintingcreatednotonly aspecialbranch ofindustry (>printinghouses).In Western Europeancountries, andnotonlythere,thereappears astableform oftheirownliterarylanguage, and themostessentialworks ofliteraryauthors,bothpast and contemporary,werebrought incorrespondencewiththem.Thus, inEstonia,wherebooks ofspiritualcontents inEstonianwereissued in the 17>thcenturywith thepurpose of thespread ofreligiousfaith,thereevenappeared twoliterary languages: theTallinnliterarylanguage (thecapital) and theTartuliterarylanguage (theuniversitytown ofEstonia) (>History ofEstonia, >Tallinn, 1982p. 111).Aninterestingmetamorphosishappenedhere: in the end of the 17>th >century theTartuliterarylanguage,where,by theway, agymnasiumwasfoundedby theJesuitsorder in 1583,outstripped theliterarylanguage ofTallinn in thenumber ofissuespublished.Itmayshow thatnotalways theactualcapitalcitiesinfluenced thesociety themost.Itisnotimpossible that,apartfromotherthings,weowe theappearance of thephrase theculturalcapital to thebirth ofprinting.

>Speakingabout the politicaltreatises of theAntiquity and theMiddleAges, itcanbenoted thataftersuchtreatisesas >Artashastra, theworks ofPlato,Aristotle (>Politica),AugustineAurelius (>On the CityDivine), a newsplash ofdevelopment of politicalthoughthappenedright in thetime of thespread ofprinting.Itwillbeenough tomentionNiccoloMacchiavelli and HugoGracit. >Polemics of thedivine and thematerialpowersare thestrugglebetween thechurch and the stateapparatus (I.Ekimov.Lectures.Tartu, 1993.p. 4), and ithappenedduring thebeginning of theItalianRenaissance.NiccoloMacchiavellimayhavebecome thefounder of thetheory of the statewith freemorals, thetheory,whichpenetrated thehumansheartswith thehelp ofbooks, andled to thedevelopment ofanothertheory, alittlelaterthan thedescribedperiod, in the 18>thcentury in theworks ofCharles-Louis deMontesquieu, inparticular, in hisbook >On thespirit oflaws. Thebasicprinciple ofdivision ofpowersinto thelegislative, theexecutive, and thejudicialwasintroducedby HugoGracit in the 17>thcentury;laterthistheorywasdevelopedbyMontesquieu.Somepolitologiststhink that the USAisdevelopingaccording toMontesquieusmodel.

>Itwasnotsurprising thatunder theinfluence of thegrowth ofeducation of thepeople thepopulationstarted tounderstandpoliticbetter.In the end of the 17>thcentury the politicalmovementwasformed thatsurviveduntilnowadays :liberalism. Theimpetus to thedevelopment of theliberalism,whosehomelandis inEngland and,partly, France,wasgivenby thedevelopment of theReformationaswell, andthereforeprintingplayedanimportantpart in theformation ofthismovement.Besides that,as areaction toliberalismconservatism andsocialismwereformedaswell.Andeventhoughliberalismwasfinallyformedduring the FrenchRevolution and theNapoleonicwars, thetime ofitsformationisstillconsidered tobe the end of the 17>thcentury, and thereasonforthis thedevelopment of theReformation.

Theeducation of commonpeopleaffected the political lifeinsidesomeseparatestatesaswell.Forexample, TheGloriousRevolution inEngland, insomepeoplesopinion,was acompromisebetween therisingmiddleclass and theformerlarge-scalefeudallandowners (>K . . , 1983. . 22, . 309). A newclass ofbourgeoisieappears in Europe, and Europeitselfisentering a newera, theera of theEnlightenment. >Havingsurvived twobourgeoisrevolutions in the 17>th >centuryEnglandfounditselfat theriver-head of the EuropeanEnlightenment (>History ofliterature.ed. Z.Plavskin. Moscow, 1991.p. 21).Thus, in Europe in the 17>thcentury thenecessaryprerequisitesfor thegreatIndustrialRevolution of the 18>thcenturywerecreated.

>Before the 15>thcentury thelevel of thedevelopment of thescientificknowledgewasextremelylow. Peoplejudged thenatural andsocial worldonly on thebasis ofreligiousdogmas or,at best, on thebasis ofsuperficialobservation of thesurroundingreality.

>But thesocialpracticefaced manwith theproblemswhichwereimpossible tosolve on thebasis ofoldconceptions.Empiricalknowledgewasaccumulating.Now thescientificallybasedknowledge,whichsummed up theexperience andcreated thetheory,had thedecisiveimportance.

>Thus thebases ofmodernscienceswerecreated in theMiddleAges. Newways of research,based onobservation,experience, andexperimentwereworked out. Newknowledge in thespheres ofmechanics,astronomy,chemistry,naturalsciences, andgeographywasaccumulating. Newsciencesalsoappeared suchashydrodynamics,trigonometry.At thesametimepeopleweredoing alargenumber ofinventions anddiscoveries: themicroscope, thetelescope, thethermometer, thebarometerwerecreated; itwasproved that the Earthisspherical, and that,togetherwithotherplanets, itspinsaround thesun.Europeansget to knowabout all thecontinents of the Earth. A newoutlookiscreated, theviews on the state andsociety change.

>Before that, in the 15>thcentury away ofproduction of thecheapwritingmaterial (>paper) andbookprintingwereinvented,whichbecame atrue revolution in thedevelopment of science andeducation. Theexchange ofknowledge and thespread of newideaswouldhavebeenimpossiblewithout that. Theradicalturn in thedevelopment ofscientificthought,whichled todeepeconomicchanges and thebirth ofcapitalism.

>However, thedevelopment ofscientificthoughtdidnotcome to Europewithoutblood.As itwasmentionedearlier, in themiddle of the 16>thcenturyall-EuropeanCatholicreactionbegan, andItalybecameitsfirstvictim.After there-organization of theInquisition in 1542 inRome theHigherTribunalwasestablished,headedbycardinalCaraffa.In thereign ofthiscardinal thestrugglewith theeducatedthought andbooksreacheditsacme.WhencardinalCaraffabecamePopePaul IV,heissued thefirst >index offorbiddenbooks in 1559.In thefollowingyearsthisindexwasperiodicallyreprinted andadded towith thegreatestworks ofhumanthought (>Boccaccio andMacchiavelli inparticular). Apunishmentthreatenedoneforreadingthesebooks, thebooksthemselveswereburntdown. Thestruggle of thechurchwith theepoch of theRenaissancebegan.Bookcensorshipwasgiveninto thehands ofInquisition,manythinkersdied infire.

 

>CONCLUSION

>Printingwas thegreatestachievement of theepoch of theRenaissance,thisinventionvirtuallyturnedover thewhole European life in the 16>thcentury. Thebeginning of the massspread of thebookmaybeconsidered theperiod of theReformation.On theotherhand,Lutherhimselfsaid that itwasprinting thathelpedhim tospread hisviews. Thebookfavoured thespread of theReformation,which, initsownturn,led to thedivision of Europeinto twofightingcamps and toreligiouswars of the 16>th-17>th >centuries. Booksservedas aweaponforfightingbetween theCatholic and theReformistchurches. Theinstitute ofcensorshipappeared andtookitsfinalshape in Europe.Thiscensorshipsomewhereremained up tonow.

>Togetherwith thepublication ofworks ofliteraryauthors theofficialprintalsoappeared andbecame aweapon in thehands of stateapparatus.

>Butprobably themostimportantthingis thatprintingled toloweringprices onbooks and,therefore, theincrease oftheiravailabilityfor thepopulation.This, initsownturn,led to theincrease ofeducation andenlightenmentamongpeople.Therearebourgeoisrevolutions in Europe, a newclass ofpopulationisbeingformed.

Scientific andcreativethoughtisbeingstimulated, newsciencesappear.Printingcreatesanadditionalpossibilityfor thespread ofscientificknowledge. Literary languages of Europeanpeoplesareformed,which, intheirturn,leads to thegrowth ofnationalself-consciousness.

>Fistsignificanttreatises on politicalphilosophysince thetimes ofAntiquityappear. Amostimportantprinciple of thedivision ofpowersappears; thefirst politicalpartiesappear. Europeapproaches theepoch of theEnlightenment.

>REFERENCES

 

>Medevalhistory. >scow, 1980.

. Moscow, 1911.

.Marx. .Moscow, 1983,vol. 22.

>History ofliterature.Redactor: Z.Plavskin.oscow, 1991.

>I.Ekimov.Lectures.Tartu, 1993.

>History ofEstonia.>Tallinn, 1982.

>N.Kolesnitskiy. >Germany in XV-XVIIcenturies. Moscow, 1980.

Books andprinting. >Leningrad, 1981.

>P.Mizhyef. Books andprinting. Moscow, 1913.

H.Bouchot. Lelivre,lillustration, lareliure. >Paris, 1886 (>quotedfromtranslation).

XV-XVII . Moscow, 1976.

>Typology ofreaders andbiblyografy. Moscow, 1985.

Books in Russia in XVIIcent., >Leningrad, 1970.


: