Реферат The copyright rights


>THEABSTRACT

>On atheme: The з>opyrightrights

>MINSK 2011


>Concept andproductsigns

The copyrightextends onproducts of a science, theliterature and theartswhicharegrowing out ofcreativeactivity,irrespective ofappointment andadvantage ofproduct, andalso away ofitsexpression.

Thelegislationdoesnot open themaintenance ofconcept ">product" inspite of thefact that itisbasicconcept ofinstitute of the copyright.Itspeaks thatanypossibledefinition ofconcept ">product"cannot todefine in theexhaustiveimage thegivenobject of arightprotection.Attempts tomakedefinition toconcept ">product"repeatedlywereundertaken in the copyrighttheory. Themostsuccessful and,therefore, themostwidespread,is thedefinitionformulatedbyV.I.Serebrovskiy: «>productis aset ofideas,thoughts and theimageswhichhavereceivedas aresult ofcreativeactivity of theauthor theexpression inaccessible toperceptionbyhumanfeelings to theconcreteform,supposingreproductionpossibility».

>Tobeprotectedby the copyright, >productshouldbeexpressed inanyobjectiveform.Productisanobjectideal; itinitiallyarises inconsciousness of theauthoras acomplex ofideas,thoughts andimages, in theform of acreativeplan.Until,asproductnotbegins toexist out ofconsciousness of theauthor,doesnotbecome theindependentphenomenon ofanobjectivereality,thereisnonecessitylegislatively toestablishlegalconnectionbetween theauthor anditsproduct.Ifproductcannotbeusedotherpersons,thereisnosubject oflegalregulationfornorms of the copyright.Differently,productshouldexist inshapewhichisseparatedfrom theperson of theauthor andhasgotindependent life.

>Productcanbepresented infollowingforms:

-Written (themanuscript,typewriting, amusicalnotation etc.);

-Oral (publicpronouncing, publicexecution etc.);

-video-recordings (>mechanical,magnetic,digital,optical etc.);

-Images (>drawing, thesketch, apicture, theplan, thedrawing,cinema - abody -video-or aphotoshot etc.);

-Volume-spatial (asculpture,model, abreadboardmodel, aconstruction etc.);

-Inotherforms.

>Howevernotanyobjectivelyexistingworkisprotectedby the copyright. The copyrightextendsonlyfor theworks >whicharegrowing out ofcreativeactivity.Ascreativeactivityrecognise theindependentintellectualactivity of thepersondirected oncreation ofanimage of thefutureproduct anditsembodiment inanyobjectiveform.

The copyrightdoesnotregulateprocess ofcreation ofproduct.Thereforefor thequestiondecisionaboutproductscrucialimportancehasnotcharacter ofactivity onproductcreation, and acorrespondingsign of theproductcreatedas aresult ofthisactivity. Asign of thatproductgrows out ofcreativeactivity, themajority ofresearchersnameitsnovelty;somescientistsuse theterm ">originality".Novelty (>originality) ofproductisexpressed in the newmaintenance, the newform ofproduct.Thusnovelty of theidea takenas aprinciple ofproduct,doesnotinfluencenovelty of theproductfrom thepoint ofview of the copyright. Thesameidea, thesameplotcanbeused thedifferentauthors,howevereach of theproducts,comprising thesameidea (asubjectbasis),reflects theperson of theauthor andisperceivedby asocietyas new,independentproduct.Itispossible totell that >anycreativeproductischaracterisedbyoriginality,novelty,originality anduniqueness.

>Granting ofprotection toproduct >doesnotdepend onitsappointment andadvantage.Advantageisunderstoodas thevariousmerits ofproductconcerningitsform or themaintenance: thethemeurgency, artvalue,scientificdepth,author'sstyle etc. copyrightAppointmentas awholeconsistsnot inselectingworthyproducts, and inprovidinginterests of thefounder ofproductwhenitsproductcanbeusedotherpersons.By the copyrightanyproducts inwhichcreativity andwhichpossess thesigns ofobject of the copyrightprovidedby thelegislationisshownshouldbeprotected.


Theproductsprotectedby the copyright

Theapproximate list ofobjects of the copyright >isnamed inLawitem 7 «>About the copyrightboth theadjacentrights» anditem 993 ДК.To theproductsprotectedby the copyright,concern:

- Literaryworks (>books,brochures,articles, etc.);

-Drama andismusical-dramaproducts,choreography andpantomimeproducts andothers сценарніproducts;

-Pieces of musicwith thetext andwithout thetext;

-Audiovisualproducts (>cinema - abody - videofilms,filmstripsbothotherfilm-andteleproducts);

-Products of asculpture, painting, adrawing,lithograph andotherproducts of thefinearts;

-Applied artproducts;

-Products ofarchitecture,town-planning andlandscapegardening art;

-Photographicproducts and theproductsreceived in theways,similar to aphoto;

-Cards,plans,sketches,illustrations and theplasticproductsconcerninggeography,topography andothersciences;

- Computerprograms;

- Otherproducts.

>Products of allgenres of fictionconcernnumber ofliteraryworks,scientificworks (>articles,reports, etc.), theeducationalliterature,speeches,reports,sermons andotheroralproducts;journalismproducts (>articles,interview,discussions, etc.), business andpersonalcorrespondence, etc.Thusliteraryworkscanexistnotonly inwritten,butalso inotherobjectiveform.

>Dramaproductsareratherclose toliteraryworks.Isolation ofdramaproductsiscausedbyspecificity of artmeans ofexpression ofthoughts of theauthorinherent inthemas indramaproducts thebasicaccentbecomes on astatement ofcreativeideabymeans ofmonologue anddialogues ofcharacters.

The copyrightprotects allkinds ofpieces of music. Themostwidespreadversion ofpieces of musicarepieces of musicwith thetext -songs. Thepiece of musicwith thetextiscreated in theco-authorship thecomposer and thepoetoriginal (>i.e.notcompound)product;originalcharacter of asongispredeterminedby that allprotectedelements of asongarecreatedbyitsco-authors.

Thespecialplaceamongobjects of the copyrightisoccupied >withaudiovisualproducts. Theproductconsisting of aseries ofimagesconnectedamongthemselves (>withsupportby a sound orwithout it),movementsmakingimpression, andintendedforvisual andacoustical (incase ofsupportby a sound)perceptionsisaudiovisual. Thecinema andotherproductsexpressedbymeansconcern theaudiovisual,similar tocinematography (>televisionmovies, videofilms andsimilarproducts).

The copyrightprotectsproducts of alldirections of thefinearts -products of painting, adrawing, asculpture,monumental anddecorative art, etc.

>Fineartsproductsareadjoined >byproducts ofanapplied artwithwhich thelegislatorallocates in aseparatekind ofprotectedproducts.Appliedcharacter ofproductsmeans, thattheyareintendednotonlyforsatisfaction ofpurelyaestheticrequirements of public,butalsocarry outother,practicalfunctions.Amongapplied artproducts theincreasingvalueisgotbydesignproducts. Thedesignisan art ofgiving to thesubjectenvironment ofaestheticqualitiessurrounding theperson,thereforedesignas adirection inanapplied art,hasset ofdisplays -graphicdesign,industrialdesign,design ofinteriors ofpremises, etc.

>Architecturalproductsalsohas thedualnatureasshouldnotonlysatisfyessentialmaterialrequirements - tocreatehabitation and toarrangewellenvironment,butalso tosatisfyaestheticrequirements of theperson. Theisconstructive-technicaldecision ofbuildings andconstructionsissubject to therightprotection art,instead of.Thus therightprotectionextendsboth onappearance ofobject, and on the artdecisioninternalspaces (>interior).

>Products of allkinds >photographic andsimilar tothemconcern acategory of theprotected -irrespective ofobject (aportrait, alandscape, thereporting, etc.), andalso thepursuedaim (>professional oramateurshooting), etc.

Newenoughobject ofprotectionby the copyrightare >computerprograms. Computerprogramsgrow out ofcreativeactivity.At thesametime,providingprotection ofcomputerprogramsbynorms of the copyright, thelegislatorinevitablyfaces theproblemscausedbyspecificity of thecomputerprogramasprotectedobjectas in it themaintenance (>algorithm)hasanunconditionalpriorityover theform (thealgorithmstatedby theprogramminglanguage). TheMajorimportancefor thecomputerprogramhasitsfunctionalitywhichispredeterminedbyalgorithm, and theprogramwriting inthis or thatprogramminglanguagecanbeindifferentfor theuser.Providingprotection to theproductform, the copyrightdoesnotprotectalgorithmlaying initsbasis.Thereforemore andmoreactual thequestion onnecessity ofgrantingisrepresented to thecomputerprogram ofspecialprotectionwhich,first,wouldconsiderfeatures ofobject ofprotection and,unlike the copyright,extendednotonly on theform,butalso on thealgorithm takenas aprinciple theprogram, and,secondly,therewasmoreoperative,cheap andaccessible,ratherthanexistingsystem ofpatentprotection.

Independentversions ofobjects of the copyrightare >derivativeproducts and >compoundproducts.

>Transfersconcern >derivativeproducts,summaries,abstracts, theresume,reviews,performances,musicalarrangements andother ofproducts of a science, theliterature and art.All ofthemadmitobjects of the copyrightasactivity ontheircreationhascreativecharacter. The copyright oftranslators andauthors ofotherderivativeproductshasdependentcharacter: theauthor ofderivativeproductcancarry out the copyrightonly in theevent thatuse ofitsproductdoesnotattractinfringement of therights of theauthor of theproduct takenas aprinciplederivativeproduct. The copyright of thetranslator andauthors ofotherderivativeproductsdoesnotinterferewithotherpersons tocarry out thetransfers of thesameproducts.

>Collectionsconcern >compoundproducts (theanthology,databases) andotherproductsrepresenting onselection oranarrangement ofmaterialsresult ofcreativeactivity.Creativeactivity of thecomposerisexpressed that itatowndiscretionselects amaterial and (or)has it on theoriginalsystem.Result ofcreativework of thecomposeris thesystem ofanarrangement ofmaterialsdevelopedby itas the copyright of thecomposerdoesnotextend on theproductsincluded incompoundproduct, and the copyright of thecomposer tocompoundproductas awholedoesnotinterferewithotherpersons tocarry outindependentselection andanarrangement of thesamematerialsforcreation of thecompoundproducts.Therefore, aprotectionsubjectwithreference tocompoundproductsisoriginalselection and (or)anoriginalarrangement of thepicked upmaterials.Ifproductsprotectedby the copyrightareincluded incompoundproduct, thecomposeruses the copyrightundercondition ofobservance of therights ofauthors ofeachby it of theproductsincluded incompoundproduct.

>Anyresult of thecreativityansweringby theestablishedlegislation on the copyright tocriteria ,willadmit >object of the copyright >irrespective of,whether itisnamed in the listresultedabove, ornot.

>Protection ofproductsby the copyrightarisesowing to thefact oftheircreation. >Foroccurrence and copyrightrealization itisnotrequiredobservance ofanyformalities.Usedfor thenotificationaboutexclusivecopyrights thesign onprotection of the copyright (a copyrightsign) andconsisting ofthreeelements - theLatinletter ">With" in acircle, aname (>name) of theowner ofexclusivepropertyrights andyear of thefirstpublication ofproduct -carries outespecially informationfunction.Initselfabsence on acopy ofproduct of asign onprotection of the copyrightdoesnotmean, that thegivenproductisnotprotectedby the copyright.

The copyright toproductisnotconnectedwith thepropertyright tomaterialobject inwhichproductisexpressed. Transfer of thepropertyright or thepossessionrightanymaterialobject initselfdoesnotattracttransfer of the copyright to theproductexpressed inthisobject.


Theproductswhicharenotobjects of the copyright

>Concepts ">product" and «>object of the copyright»arenotidentical. Thefirstconceptiswider,as thelegislationnamessomecategories ofproductswhich,possessing allsignsprotectedby the copyright,owing to adifferentsort of thereasonsarededucedfromsphere ofitsaction.Toproductswhicharenotprotectedby the copyright,concern:

-Officialdocuments (>laws,judgements,othertexts oflegislative,administrative andjudicialcharacter), andalsotheirofficialtransfers;

- The statesymbols andsigns (aflag, thearms, ahymn,awards,monetary andothersigns);

-Products of thenationalcreativitywhichauthorsarenotknown.

The copyrightalsodoesnotextend onideas,processes,systems,methods offunctioning, theconcept,principles, opening oreasier informationasthoseeveniftheyareexpressed,displayed,explained orembodied inproduct.

>Authors ofproducts. Theco-authorship

>product copyrightprotectauthor

The copyrightby thegeneralrulearisesat theauthor. Theauthor ofproduct thephysicalpersonwhichcreativeactivitycreatesproductadmits.

>Ifproductiscreatedbyseveralpersons,suchpersonsadmitco-authors. Theco-authorshipare thelegal relationsarisingowing to thefact ofjointcreation ofproductbyseveralpersons.

Thelawnames twoconditions ofoccurrence of theco-authorship: 1)productshouldbecreatedjointwork of two ormorepersons; 2)work of allparticipating increation ofproduct ofpersonsshouldhavecreativecharacter.

>Jointcharacter ofworkshouldbeestimatednot onjointprocess ofwork, andby in commonreachedresult;importantnot that,aswellas inwhatformco-authors, and thatproducthasgrown out oftheirjointeffortsworked.Thereforeforco-authorshipoccurrence thejointworkunderstoodasactivity ofseveralpersons,directed onachievement of theco-ordinatedresultwhatproductcreationismatters.Thusjointactivitydoesnotmeanitsunity intime andspace, andonly thatauthorswork onproducttogether, andeach ofthembrings thecontribution toitscreation.

>Co-authorsthose whohasbrought thecreativecontribution toproductcreationcanadmitonly. Theperson whohasnotbrought thecreativecontribution toproductcreation, andrenderedonly thetechnicalhelp (amanuscriptset,bibliographydrawing up, aportrayal ofsketches, etc.)cannotadmit theco-author.Essentiallyimportant that thebasis ofoccurrence of theco-authorshipareactualisrepresented,instead ofcontractual relations ofpersons, andanyagreement,includingissued inwriting,hasnolegalvalueifco-authorsactuallyhavenotbeendojointcreativework.

>Distinguish twokinds of theproductscreated in theco-authorship: theproductsformingoneindissolublewhole, and theproductsconsisting ofparts,each ofwhichhasindependentvalue. Theproductpartadmitshavingindependentvalueif itcanbeusedirrespective ofotherparts ofproduct.Accordingly, twokinds of theco-authorship - >separate and >unseparablediffer. Theseparateco-authorshiptakesplacewhencollectiveproductconsists ofparts,each ofwhichhasindependentvalue andthus itisknown,bywhomfromco-authorsthesepartsarecreated.Inthiscaseeach ofco-authorshas theright touse thepart ofproductcreatedby itatowndiscretionifotherisnotprovidedby theagreementbetweenco-authors.At theunseparableco-authorship theproductcreatedby two ormoreco-authors, orrepresentsuniformindissolublewhole, or itisimpossible toallocate thecontribution of theconcreteco-author tocollectiveproduct.Therefore the copyright to thecollectiveproductcreated in theunseparableco-authorship, allco-authors in commoncarry out. Thelegislator,trying toprovideinterests of allco-authors,establishes, that in theevent thatproduct ofco-authorsformsoneindissolublewhole,any ofco-authorshasnot therightwithout thesufficientbases on that toforbidproductuse.

Theprinciple of thejointorderproductdoesnotinterferewithauthors toenterintoamongthemselves theagreementdefining aprocedure of therightsconcerningcollectiveproduct.By thelegalnature theagreement ofco-authorsisone ofversions ofcontracts onanorder ofusing theright,similar to thecontract ofproprietors onanorder ofuse ofproperty.

Officeproducts

Thelaw ofByelorussia «>About the copyright and theadjacentrights»definesofficeproductas theproductcreatedasperformance of theofficetask orofficialduties.

Thelawdoesnotcontainaccuratedefinition ofsphere inwhichnormsaboutofficeproductsareapplied.Nevertheless, itispossible tosay that theconcept ">office"canbeusedonlywithreference to theproductscreatedwithin thelimits oflabour relations. Thelegislatoruses theterm ">employer",definition towhichisgiven in theLabourcode ofByelorussia.According toitem 1 ТК theemployerislegal or thephysicalperson towhom thelegislationgives theright of theconclusion and thetermination of thelabourcontractwith theworker.Besides, thelegislatorusesconcepts ">officialduties" and «theofficetask»whichareapplied inlabour relations.

Thefirstpossiblebasis of arecognition ofobject of the copyrightofficeis thatitscreationisincludedintoofficialduties of theworker. Thecurrentlegislationdoesnotgive thatdirectdefinition, thatsuch ">officialduties". Thelabourcodeusesconcept «>officeposition of theworker»atdefinition of theterm "post".Thusofficeposition of theworkerisdefinedbycircle ofitsduties, theofficialrights andcharacter ofresponsibility.Proceedingfrom it, itispossible toputanequal-signbetweenconcepts ">officialduties" and «>officialduties».Inturn,officialdutiesassumepresence oflabour relationswhichshouldbeissued thelabourcontract; in thelabourcontract or indutyregulationsofficialduties of theworkeralsoshouldbefixed.Thus, the statusofficecanreceiveproduct in theevent thatitscreationisincludedintolabourduties of theauthor.

Thelaw «>About the copyright and theadjacentrights»establishes aspeciallegal statusconcerningofficeproducts. Thepersonalnon-propertyrights to theproductcreatedasperformance of theofficetask orofficialduties (>officeproduct),belong to theauthor.Propertyrights onofficeproductbelong to theemployerif thecontractbetween it and theauthordoesnotprovideother.

>Asfollowsfromnorm ofitem 14 of theLaw, thepresumption ofanaccessory ofpropertyrights onofficeproduct to theemployercanbedeniedconditions of theprisonerbetween it and theauthor of thecontract. Theemployer and theauthor in thelabourcontract (>contract)canestablish, thatpropertyrights onofficeproduct infullariseat theauthor; inthiscaseitslegalregimewillnotdifferfrom alegalregime of theproductcreatedoutside thelimits of labor relations, and to theemployerinterested initsuse, itwillbenecessary toconclude theauthor'scontractwith theworker.Propertyrightsaccording to theagreementwillbedividedbetween theworker and theemployer (onways ofuse ofproduct orterritory onwhich therightwillbecarried out).

Thelawlimits theauthor ofofficeproduct inpossibility totakeadvantage of thepersonalnon-propertyrightsbelonging to it.In theevent that theowner ofpropertyrights onofficeproductis theemployer, theauthorhasnot therightinterferewithpromulgationsuchintergovernmentalcooperationadministrativeBesides, theauthor ofofficeproductcannot tocarry out theright to aresponsealso.

Therecognition ofpropertycopyrights toofficeproductfor theemployerdeprives of theauthor ofsuchproduct of theright toreception ofcompensationboth theemployer, and thethirdparties.


Theliterature

1. The copyright and theadjacentrights.Laws,conventions, договори andagreements. -Minsk, 2010.

2.Intellectualproperty. Thebasicmaterials:In 2parts theTranslationfrom English,Novosibirsk, 1993.

3.Intellectualproperty. TheDictionary-directory/under theeditorship ofA.D.Korchagina. - M, 2011.

4.SavelyevI.V.legalregulation of relations in thefield of artcreativity. - М, 2009.

5.SerebrovskyV.I.Voprosy of theSoviet copyright. - М, 1956.

6.SergeysA.P.Intellectual in theRussianFederation.TH., 2008.

7.Tchernyshev S.A.Аuthor's thecontract. - М, 2011.


Схожі реферати:

Навігація