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The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

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>FederalAgency oneducation

Stateeducationalinstitution ofvocationaltraining

>College ofOptics and Electronics

>Diplomapaper

Theproblems of theSubjunctiveMood in English

>Krasnogorsk 2007


-

2007


>Contents

>Preface

1. TheSubjunctiveMood?

1.1 Foreignlinguistsspeculationsabout theSubjunctiveMood

1.2 TheSubjunctiveMoodfrom thepoint ofview of therepresentatives of theRussianlinguisticschool

2. Themaincases of theuse of theSubjunctiveMood in English

3. Theuse of TheSubjunctiveMood in theworks of English and Americanwriters

>Conclusion

>Bibliography


>Preface

>Therearemanycontroversial andnotthoroughlyinvestigatedpoints in the Englishgrammar.Nevertheless, inmyopinionone of themostdifficult andnotclearbothfrom thepoint ofview ofitsdefinition anddescription andfrom thepoint ofview ofitspracticalimplementation inspeechis thesubject of theSubjunctiveMood.Even thename ofthisgrammaticalcategoryseemsambiguous interm ofitsbeingapproached andcharacterizedbydifferentoutstandinglinguists inourcountry andabroad.

Nowonderthis problemcouldntbutarisemycuriosity andlanguageinterest. Ihavemade upmymind toconsider thematerialcompiled onthis problem indifferentsources toclear up thepointformyself and tohave abetterideaabout theusage of theSubjunctiveMood inspeech.

Iwilllearnmore informationaboutpoints ofviews of English andRussiangrammarians.Itisveryinterestingforme to know how Englishlinguistsunderstand problem of TheSubjunctiveMood andwhatwayRussianonesdo it. Iwillalsointroduce themostimportantpoint ofmydiplomapaper theusage of theSubjunctiveMood. Iwant tolearn inwhatcasesweshoulduse theSubjunctiveMood.

>Thus theobject ofmypaperis theSubjunctiveMooditself.

Thesubject ofmydiplomapaperis theSubjunctiveMood in theworks offoreign andRussiangrammarschoolsaswellas themaincases of theSubjunctiveMoodusage.

Theaim ofmydiplomapaperis tocomparedifferentapproaches to the problem of theSubjunctiveMoodwith thepurpose ofinvestigating thematerialavailableformeabout theSubjunctiveMoodfrom English andRussiansources.

>Mydiplomapaperconsists ofthreechapters: in the 1>stchapter Iconsiderdifferentapproaches to theSubjunctiveMoodunderstandingboth inourcountry andabroad.In the 2>ndchapter Ipresent themaincases of theSubjunctiveMooduse andperform theresultsobtained.Thereis aconclusiontoo.Towritemydiplomapaper Iused theworks of theoutstanding Englishgrammarians,suchas: H. Sweet,G.O.Curme,O.Jespersen andRussianscholars: V.Kaushanskaya, V.Vinogradov. Youcansee thenames oftheirworks in the list ofliterature, onpage 25, and the informationfrom Internet.

The 3>d >chapterrepresentsmypracticalcontributioninto the problem of theSubjunctiveMood.Inthischapter Ianalyze theuse of theSubjunctiveMoodbysome English and Americanwriters anddraw theconclusionbased on thematerialcollected.

TheliterarysourcesaregivenassupplementarymaterialafterBibliography.


1. TheSubjunctiveMood?

1.1  Foreignlinguistsspeculationsabout theSubjunctiveMood

>Asweshallfurtherseethereisnounity on theSubjunctiveMoodamong the worldfamousforeigngrammarians. Iwouldlike todwell on theviews of themostoutstandinglinguists.

>By themoods of averb H. Sweet in hiswork A new EnglishGrammar (>Part I)understandsgrammaticalformsexpressingdifferent relationsbetweensubject andpredicate.Thus,if alanguagehasspecialforms toexpresscommandsasdistinguishedfromstatements,weinclude theforms thatexpresscommandunder theterm >imperativemood.Thus in English >come!is in theimperativemood,while thestatement >hecomesis in the >indicativemood.

>In English theonlyinflectionalmoodsare theindicative andsubjunctive.But theinflections of the Englishverbaresoscanty thatweneednotbesurprised tofind that thedistinctionbetweenindicative andsubjunctiveisveryslight. Theonlyregularinflectionbywhich thesubjunctiveisdistinguishedfrom theindicative in Englishis that of thethirdpersonsingularpresent,whichdrops thes of theindicative (>hesees) in thesubjunctive (>hesee).In theverb tobe,however,furtherdistinctionsaremade:indicative Iam,heis,hewas,subjunctive Ibe,hebe,hewere, >although in thespokenlanguage theonlydistinction thatisstillkeptusis thatbetween >was and >were.Consequently thesense of thedistinction infunctionbetweensubjunctive andindicativehasalmostdied out in English, anduse thesubjunctive >wereonly incombinationwithothermood-forms, theothersubjunctiveinflectionssurvivingonly in afewspecialphrases andconstructions,suchas >God,save the Queen!,where thesubjunctiveexpresseswish,beingthusequivalent to theGreekoptative.

Thefewdistinction that Englishmakesbetweenfact-statements andthought-statementsaremainlyexpressed,notbyinflections,butbyauxiliaries (>periphrasticmoods), andbypeculiaruses oftense-distinctions. Thefollowingare theauxiliaryforms:

a) Thecombination of >should and >wouldwith theinfinitive the >conditionalmood.

b) Thecombination of >may anditspreteritemightwith theinfinitiveiscalled the >permissivemood.

) Thecombination of thefiniteforms of theverb tobewith thesupineiscalled >compulsivemood.

>Weusetenses toexpressthought-statements in thehypotheticalclauses ofconditionalsentences,as in >if Iknew hisaddress Iwouldwritehim;if itwerepossible Iwoulddo it. >In thelatterexample thehypothesisisshownnotonlyby thepreteritetense,butalsoby thesubjunctiveinflection,whichisreallysuperfluous.When athought-statementisexpressedby atense inthisway, H. Sweetcalls it a >tense-mood.Were in >if itwere >is a >subjunctivetense-mood.

>Aswesee, insomeconditionalsentences allthreeways ofexpressingthought-statementareused.

>G.O.Curme in thework AGrammar of the EnglishLanguageconsidersmoodsas thechanges in theform of theverb toshow thevariousways inwhich theaction or stateisthought ofby thespeaker.

>Thereare twomoods:

1.  >IndicativeMood. >Thisformrepresentssomethingas afact, oras incloserelationwithreality, or ininterrogativeforminquiresafter afact.

2.  >SubjunctiveMood. Thefunction of thesubjunctivemoodis torepresentsomething,notasanactualreality,butasformed in themind of thespeakeras adesire,wish,volition,plan,conception,thought;somethingwithmore orlesshope ofrealization, or, in thecase of astatement,withmore orlessbelief,sometimeswithlittle ornohope orfaith.

Thevariousmeaningsmaybeclassifiedunder twogeneralheads theoptativesubjunctive and thepotentialsubjunctive. Theoptativesubjunctiverepresentssomethingasdesired,demanded,required. Thepotentialsubjunctivemarkssomethingas amereconception of themind,butat thesametimerepresents itassomething thatmayprobablybe orbecome areality or on theotherhandassomething thatiscontrary tofact.

H.Whitehall in thework >StructuralEssentials of Englishsays thatMood (ormode)establishes thespeakers orwritersmoodabout theactuality of ahappening. Theindicativemoodindicates thatwhathesaysmustberegardedas afact,i.e.,ashavingoccurred orasoccurring; theso-calledsubjunctivemoodimplies thatheisdoubtful oruncertainaboutitsoccurrence.

>Although thesubjunctiveisgraduallydying out of thelanguage, Englishisrich indevicesforexpressingonespsychologicalmoodstowardhappenings thatareimaginary.

>Ourapparatusforexpressingmoodsuggests that in theuse ofverbword-groups, thespeakers orwritersmentalattitudesare ofgreatimportance.

>Manygrammariansenumerate thefollowingmoods in English, etc.:indicative,subjunctive,imperative,infinitive, andparticiple.O.Jespersenas itcanbeseenfrom ThePhilosophy ofGrammarconsiders thatinfinitives andparticiplescannotbecoordinatedwith theothers, andweshalltherefore inthischapter dealwith thefirstthreemoodsonly.Thesearesometimescalledfact-mood,thought-mood, andwill-moodrespectively.Buttheydonotexpressdifferent relationsbetweensubject andpredicate.Itismuchmorecorrect tosay thattheyexpresscertainattitudes of themind of thespeakertowards thecontents of thesentence.

>O.Jespersen in hiswork Amodern EnglishGrammarpresentsforms of theSubjunctiveMood in thetable:

>Forexpressingunrealaction,simultaneous orplanningactiontowardsnow >Forexpressingunrealaction,pasttowardsnow

I. Ishould

>he,she, itwoulddo

>weshouldbedoing

>youwouldbedone

>theywould

II. I

>he,she, itdo

>wewouldbedoing

>youbedone

>they

III. I

>he,she, itdo

>weshouldbedoing

>youbedone

>they

IV. I

>he,she, it

>webe,did,were

>you

>they

>should

>wouldhavedone

>shouldhavebeendoing

>wouldhavebeendoing

>would

>havedone

>wouldhavebeendoing

>havebeendoing

>havedone

>shouldhavebeendoing

>havebeendoing

>hadbeen

>haddone

1.2  TheSubjunctiveMoodfrom thepoint ofview of therepresentatives of theRussianlinguisticschool

Thecategory ofmood in thepresent Englishverbhasgivenrise tosomanydiscussions, andhasbeentreated insomanydifferentways, that itseemshardlypossible toarriveatanymore orlessconvincing anduniversallyacceptableconclusionconcerning it.Indeed, theonlypoints in thesphere ofmoodwhichhavenotsofarbeendisputedseem tobethese:thereis acategory ofmood inModern English;thereareatleast twomoods in themodern Englishverb,one ofwhichis theSubjunctive.Thesepointswerediscussednotonlyby Englishgrammarians,butRussiangrammarianstoo.

>Academician V.Vinogradov in hiswork >RussianLanguagegave thedefinition of thecategory ofmood: >Moodexpresses therelation of theaction toreality,asstatedby thespeaker.

The relationsbetweenmeaning andformwillbeexpressedby twodifferentseries ofexternalsigns.

Thefirst ofthese twopointsmaybeillustratedbysequence >weshouldcome,whichmeansonething in thesentence Ithinkweshouldcomehereagaintomorrow; itmeansanotherthing in thesentence >ifweknew thathewantsusweshouldcome toseehim, and itmeansanotherthingagain in thesentence >Howqueer thatweshouldcomeat theverymomentwhenyouweretalkingaboutus! >In asimilarway,severalmeaningsmaybefound in thesequence >hewouldcome indifferentcontexts.

The second of the twopointsmaybeillustratedbycomparing the twosentences, Isuggest thathego and Isuggest thatheshouldgo, andwewillfor thepresentneglect thefact that thefirst of the twovariantsismoretypical of American, and the second of British English.

>Mattersarestillfurthercomplicatedby twophenomenawherewearefacedwith achoicebetweenpolysemy andhomonymy.One oftheseconcernsformslike >lived,knew, etc.Suchformsappear in twotypes ofcontexts, ofwhichonemaybeexemplifiedby thesentences, Helivedherefiveyearsago, or Iknew it allalong, and theotherby thesentences >Ifhelivedherehewouldcomeatonce, or, >If Iknew hisaddress Ishouldwrite tohim.

>Insentences of thefirsttype theformobviouslyis thepasttense of theindicativemood. The secondtypeadmits of twointerpretations:either theform >lived,knew, etc.are thesameforms of thepastindicative thatwereused in thefirsttype,buttheyhaveacquiredanothermeaning inthisparticularcontext, orelse theforms >lived,knew, etc.areforms of thepastindicativebutarebasicallydifferent.

>Thereisanotherpeculiarcomplication in theanalysis ofmood. Thequestionis,whatverbsareauxiliaries ofMood inModern English? Theverbs >should and >would >areauxiliariesexpressingunreality.But thequestionislessclearwith theverbmaywhenused insuchsentencesas >Comecloser that Imayhearwhatyousay. >Is the group >mayhear >somemoodform of theverb >hear, oris it a freecombination of twoverbs,thusbelongingentirely to thefield ofsyntax,notmorphology? Thesamequestionmaybeaskedabout theverb >may insuchsentencesas >Mayyoube happy! >Where itispart of a groupused toexpress awish, andisperhaps amoodauxiliary.Weought toseekanobjectivecriterionwhichwouldenableus toarriveat aconvincingconclusion.

>Alltheseconsiderations,variedastheyare,make the problem ofmood inModern Englishextremelydifficult tosolve andtheyseem toshow inadvance thatnouniversallyacceptablesolutioncanbehopedfor in anearfuture.Thoseproposedsofarhavebeenextremelyunlikeeachother.Owning to thedifference ofapproach tomoods,grammarianshavebeenvacillatingbetween twoextremes 3moods (>indicative,subjunctive andimperative),putforwardbymanygrammarians, and 16moods,asproposedby M.Deutschbein.Betweentheseextremesthereareintermediateviews,suchas that ofProf. A.Smirnitsky, whoproposed asystem of 6moods (>indicative,imperative,subjunctive I,subjunctive II,suppositional, andconditional), and whowasfollowed inthisrespectby M.Ganshina and N.Vasilevskaya.

>Ifwe lookthrough themeaning of themoodforms,weobtain thefollowingheadings:

>Meaning >Means ofexpression

>Inducement (>order,request,prayer, and thelike)

>Possibility (>actionthought ofasconditionallypossible, oraspurpose ofanotheraction, etc.)

>Unrealcondition

>Consequence ofunrealcondition

>come (!) (>noending,noauxiliary, andusuallywithoutsubject, 2>ndpersononly)

(>he)come (>noending,noauxiliary)

>Shouldcome (>should >for allpersons)

>maycome (?)

>came,hadcome (>sameaspast orpastperfectindicative),used insubordinateclauses

>shouldcome (1>st >person)

>wouldcome (2>nd and 3>rdperson)

>Wewouldthusgeteitherfourmoods, orthreemoods, or twomoods. Thechoicebetweenthesevariantswillremainarbitrary andisunlikelyever tobedeterminedbymeans ofanyobjectivedata.

>If, on theotherhand,westartfrom themeans ofexpressingmoodswearelikely togetsomethinglikethissystem:



>Meaning

>Means ofexpression

>Inducement

>Possibility

>Unrealcondition

>Unlikelycondition

>Consequence ofunrealcondition

>Wish orpurpose

>come (!) (>noending,noauxiliary, andusuallywithoutsubject)

(>he)come (>noending inanypersons,noauxiliary)

>came,hadcome

>Shouldcome (>for allpersons)

>shouldcome (1>st >person)

>wouldcome (2>nd and 3>rdperson)

>maycome (?)

>Inthiswayweshouldobtaindifferentsystem,comprisingsixmoods,with thefollowingmeanings:

1.Inducement

2.Possibility

3.Unrealcondition

4.Unlikelycondition

5.Consequence ofunrealcondition

6.Wish orpurpose

Asimilar problemconcerns thegroups >should +infinitive and >would +infinitive.Twoviewsarepossiblehere.Ifwehavedecided toavoidhomonymyasfaraspossible,wewillsay that a group ofthistypeisbasically atense (thefuture-in-the-past),whichundercertainspecifiedconditionsmayexpressanunrealaction theconsequence ofanunfulfilledcondition.

>Ifweendorseone of theviews, thatis,ifwetake thetemporal and themodalgroups >should (>would) +infinitive tobehomonyms, thepatternsthemselveswillnot change. The changewillaffect theheadings.Weshallhave tosay, in thatcase, that thepatternsserve todistinguishbetween twobasicallydifferentformssoundingalike.Again,justas in thecase of >lived and >knew,thiswillbe amatter ofinterpretingfacts,ratherthan of thefactsassuch.

>Tosum up thewholediscussionaboutcategories of theverbfound inconditionalsentences, thesimplestview, and theone tobepreferredis thatwehavehereforms of theindicativemood in aspecialuse.Anotherviewis thatwehavehereforms ofspecialmoods, and thattheyaredistinguishedfromeachotheraccording to thecategory ofcorrelation.


2. Themaincases of theuse of TheSubjunctiveMood in English

1.Simplesentences

>Insimplesentences thesyntheticforms of theSubjunctiveMoodaremorefrequentthan theanalyticalforms.

>Insimplesentences theSubjunctiveMoodisused:

Toexpresswish:

>e.g. >Successattendyou!

Toexpresswish theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >mayisalsoused.

>e.g. >Mayyoulivelong anddie happy!

Toexpressanunrealwish:

>e.g. >Ifonlyhewere free!

Inoaths andimprecations:

>e.g. >Mannersbehanged!

Insomeexpressions:

>e.g. >Be itso!

>Godforbid!

TheSubjunctiveMood insimplesentencesischaracteristic ofliterarystyle,except inoaths andimprecations,whichbelong tolowcolloquialstyle.

2.Complexsentences

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >conditionalsentences to

>expressanunrealcondition (in thesubordinateclause) andanunrealconsequence (in the principalclause).

>Insentences ofunrealconditionreferring to thepresent offuture thepastSubjunctive of theverb tobe >isused in thesubordinateclause;withotherverbs thesamemeaningisexpressedby thePastInfinitive of theIndicativeMood.In the principalclausewefind theanalyticalsubjunctiveconsisting of themoodauxiliaryshould orwould and theIndefiniteInfinitive.Shouldisusedwith thefirstpersonsingular andplural,wouldisusedwith the second andthirdpersonsingular andplural.

>e.g. The worldwouldbehealthierifeverychemistsshop inEnglandweredemolished.

>Anunrealconditionreferring to thefuturecanalsobeexpressedby thePastSubjunctive of theverb tobe + to Infinitive of thenotionalverb or theanalyticalSubjunctivewith themoodauxiliaryshouldfor all thepersons.Suchsentencesareoftentranslatedbymeans of ꅻ, ꅻ

>e.g. >Well,Major,ifyoushouldsendme to adifficult spot withthis manalone,Idfeelsecure.

>If in thesubordinateclause themoodauxiliaryshouldisused,weoftenfind theIndicativeMood in the principalclause.

>e.g. >Ifheshouldcome,askhim towait.

>Insentences ofunrealconditionreferring to thePastPerfect of theIndicativeMoodisused in thesubordinateclause; in the principalclausewefind theanalyticalsubjunctiveconsisting of themoodauxiliaryshould orwould and thePerfectInfinitive.

>e.g. >If Ihadconsultedmyowninterests, Ishouldneverhavecomehere.

>Thereare twomixedtypes ofsentences ofunrealcondition.In thefirst ofthese theconditionrefers to thepast and theconsequencerefers to thepresent orfuture.

>e.g. >Ifyouhad takenyourmedicineyesterday,youwouldbewellnow.

>In the secondtype theconditionrefers tonoparticulartime and theconsequence to thepast.

>e.g. >Ifhewerenotsoabsent-minded,hewouldnothavemistakenyouforyoursister.

>Insentences ofunrealcondition themodalverbsmight andcoldareoftenused;theyfullyretaintheirmodalmeaning andthereforetheydonotform theanalyticalsubjunctive.

>Herewehave the group >modalverb +Infinitivewhichforms acompoundverbalmodalpredicate,whereas theanalyticalsubjunctiveforms asimplepredicate.

>e.g. Icouldhavedoneverywellif Ihadbeenwithout theMurdstones.

>Would,whenused in thesubordinateclause of asentence ofunrealcondition,isalso amodalverbformingwith theinfinitive acompoundverbalmodalpredicate.

>e.g. >Ifyouwouldcome andseeus,motherwouldbeasproud ofyour companyas Ishouldbe.

Theconjunctionsintroducingadverbialclauses ofconditionare:if, incase,provided,suppose,unless, andsomeothers.

>e.g. >Supposehewrote toyou,wouldyouanswer?

>Adverbialclauses ofconditioncontaining theverbshad,were,could andshouldareoftenintroducedwithoutanyconjunctions.Inthesecaseswefindinversion.

>e.g. >Shouldhecomethisway, Iwillspeak tohim.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused insentencesexpressingwhatmaybeunderstoodasanunrealconsequence, thecondition ofwhichisnotexpressedassuch.

>e.g. >Therewasno pianobecause itwouldhave taken upmuch room.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >adverbialclauses ofpurpose.

>When aclause ofpurposeisintroducedby theconjunctions that,so that, inorder that, >wefind theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >may(might) >if the principalclauserefers to thepresent offuture;if the principalclauserefers to thepast,only theformmight >isused.

>Ashasalreadybeenstated, themoodauxiliary >may(might) >retains inthiscase ashade ofmodality.

>e.g. Hegot up,cautiously,so thathemightnotwake thesleepingboy.

>If aclause ofpurposeisintroducedby >lest themoodauxiliary >should (>for allpersons)isgenerallyused. >Lest >has anegativemeaning ().

>e.g.Sheopened thewindowlest itshouldbestuffy in the room.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >adverbialclauses ofconcession.

>Adverbialclauses ofconcessionareintroducedby theconjunctions andconnectives >though,although,however,nomatter,whatever,whoever, etc. Theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >may (>might) >isgenerallyused.

>e.g. >Thoughhemay (>might)betiredhewillgo to theconcert.

>If theaction of thesubordinateclauseisprior to that of the principalclause thePerfectInfinitiveisgenerallyused.

>e.g. >Howeverbadlyhemayhavebehaved toyou in thepastheisstillyourbrother.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >adverbialclauses oftime and >place

>after theconjunctions >whenever and >wherever; inthesecases theclauseshaveanadditionalconcessivemeaning.

>e.g. >Wheneveryoumay (>might)come,youarewelcome.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >adverbialclauses ofcomparison (or >manner) >introducedby theconjunctions >asif and >asthough (thelatterismoreliterary).

>If theaction ofsubordinateclauseissimultaneouswith that of the principalclause thePastSubjunctive of theverb tobe >isused;withotherverbs thesamemeaningisexpressedby thePastIndefinite of theIndicativeMood.

>e.g. >Shespeaksabouthimasifsheknewhimwell.

>If theaction of thesubordinateclauseisprior to that of the principalclause thePastPerfect of theIndicativeMoodisused.

>e.g. >Shespeaksabouthimasifshehadknownhimforyears.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >predicativeclauses:

a)introducedby theconjunctionsasif,asthough, >whenwefind thelinkverbs tobe, tofell, to look, toseem, etc. in the principalclause.

>If theaction ofsubordinateclauseissimultaneouswith that of the principalclause thePastSubjunctive of theverb tobe >isused;withotherverbs thesamemeaningisexpressedby thePastIndefinite of theIndicativeMood.

>If theaction of thesubordinateclauseisprior to that of the principalclause thePastPerfect of theIndicativeMoodisused.

>e.g. Ifellasifwewerebacksevenyears,Jon.

b)when thesubject of the principalclauseisexpressedbyanabstractnounsuchas >wish,suggestion,aim,idea, etc.Inthiscase theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >should (>for allpersons)isused.

>e.g. >One of theconditionswas that Ishouldgoabroad.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >subjectclause >after a principalclause of thetype >Itisnecessary,Itisimportant, etc.

>Itis >necessary

>Itis >important

>Itis >right

>Itis >requested

>Itis >recommended thatsmb. >shoulddosmth.

>Itis >obligatory

>Itis >better (best)

>Itis >desirable

>Itis ofvitalimportance

Theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >shouldisusedfor allpersons.

>e.g. >Itwasnecessary that thechildshistoryshouldbeknown tonone.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >objectclauses:

a)When thepredicate of the principalclauseisexpressedby theverb to

>wish.If theactionexpressed in theobjectclauseissimultaneouswith that of the principalclause thePastSubjunctive of theverb tobeisused;withotherverbs thesamemeaningisexpressedby thePastIndefinite of theIndicativeMood.

>e.g. Iwish Iwere a girlagain.

>If theactionexpressed in theobjectclauseisprior to that of the principalclause thePastPerfect of theIndicativeMoodisused.

>e.g. >Auntie, Iwish Ihadnotdone it.

Theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >would (>for allpersons)isalsoused inobjectclauses theverb towish.Thisformisusedonly insentencesreferring to thepresent orfuture; itispossibleonlyif thesubject of theprincipleclauseisnot thesameas thesubject of theobjectclause.Itischieflyused insentencesexpressingrequest orannoyance.

>e.g. Iwishyouwouldstaywithmefor awhile.

b) TheSubjunctiveMoodisused inobjectclausesintroducedby the

>conjunction >lest >if in the principalclause thepredicateisexpressedby averbdenotingfear.

>e.g. >Shefearslestsheshouldbeblamed.

>Afterverbsdenotingfearobjectclausesareoftenintroducedby theconjunction that, inwhichcase theIndicativeMoodisusedoftenwith themodalverb >may (>might).

>e.g. >Shefears thatshewill (>would)beblamed.

) TheSubjunctiveMoodisused inobjectclauseswhenwefindverbs

andWord-groupsdenotingorder,suggestion,advice,desire, etc. in the principalclause. Theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >should (>for allpersons)isused.

>Suggest

>Propose

>Demand

>Desire

>Insist that >smth.shouldbe >done

>Tobeanxious

>See to it

>Order

>Require

>Make uponesmind

>e.g. >Mr.Micawberwasveryanxious that Ishouldstay todinner.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisused in >attributiveappositiveclauses >modifying thenouns >wish,suggestion,aim,idea, etc. Theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >should (>for allpersons)isused.

>e.g. >Hiswish thateverybodyshouldtakepart in theworkwasreasonable.

TheSubjunctiveMoodisalsoused in >attributiveclauses >modifying thenoun >time in the principalclause >Itistime,Itis hightime. >Inthiscase thePastSubjunctive of theverb tobe >isused;withotherverbs thesamemeaningisexpressedby thePastIndefinite of theIndicativeMood.

>e.g. >Itistimewewenthome.

Theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >shouldisalsopossible,thoughless common.

>e.g. >Itistimeweshouldgohome.

Ashasalreadybeenstated theSubjunctiveMoodmaybeused toexpress >an >emotionalattitude of thespeaker to realfacts.Herewealwaysfind theanalyticalsubjunctivewith themoodauxiliary >should,which inthiscaseisoftencalled the >emotionalshould.Ifpriorityisexpressed thePerfectInfinitiveisused.

>Inthiscase theSubjunctiveMoodisrendered inRussianby theIndicativeMood. Theemotional >shouldoccurs indifferentkinds ofsubordinateclauses; the principalclause insuchcasescontains:

a)Anadjectiveexpressingastonishment,incredulity,regret,joy,suchas >strange,wonderful,unnatural,impossible,fortunate,unfortunate, etc.

>e.g. >Itisimpossible thatsheshouldhavesaid it.

b) Anounwith thesamemeaning: >wonder,pity,shame, etc.

>e.g. Heissuch acharming man that itisquite apityheshouldbesograve andsodull.

) The principalclausemaybe of thefollowingtype: Iamsorry,glad,pleased, >vexed, etc.

>e.g. Iamsorryyoushouldtakesuchneedlesstrouble.

TheTenses of theFormsExpressingUnreality (>Summary)

>Ascanbeseenfrom theabovedescription,not all theforms ofunrealitycanexpresstensedistinctions.Thus theSubjunctiveMood and themodalphrasesshould (>for allpersons) +infinitive andwould (>for allpersons) +infinitivehavenotensedistinctions.Theyareusedonly incertaintypes ofsubordinateclauses andgenerallyshow that theaction of thatclausefollows theaction of the principalclause,i.e.theyexpresstimerelatively.

>e.g. Isuggest(ed) thathetakes up thematter.

>Sincetheseformshavenotensedistinctions therules of thesequence oftensesarenotobservedhere.

>Tensedistinctionsareexpressedonlyby theforms of theConditionalMood (>whichhas twotenses Present andPast) andalsoby theuse of theforms of thePastIndefinite and thePastPerfect.

ThePresentConditionalMood and theform of thePastIndefinite (>also theformwerefor allpersonssingular)serve toreferanaction to thepresent or thefuturewhentheyareused incomplexsentenceswith aclause ofcondition (or aclause ofconcessionintroducedbyevenif oreventhough).

>e.g. >If Ihadtime Ishouldgo on ashortholiday.

ThePastConditionalMood and theform of thePastPerfectserve toreferanaction to thepast in thesamekinds ofclauses.

>e.g. >If Ihadhadtime Ishouldhavegone on ashortholiday.

ThePresentConditionalMoodisalsousedwithreference to thepresent orfuture insimplesentenceswithimpliedconditionwhile thePastConditionalrefersanaction to thepast.

>e.g. >Itwouldnotbepossible todecideanythingwithouthim.

>Itwouldnothavebeenpossible todecideanythingwithouthim.

>In allthosecases thetensesareusedabsolutely,i.e.theyreferanactiondirectly to thepresent, thepast or thefuture.

Thesameistrue of themodalverbwere +infinitivewhichisusedonly inif-clauses andrefersanaction of thatclause to thefuture.

>e.g. >Ifeverybodywere tobebrought updifferently,would the worldnot change?

>Butwhen allthoseforms,which in theabovedescribedcasesexpresstime relationsabsolutelyareused inothersubordinateclauses,theybecomerelativetenses,i.e.theyexpress thetimewithregard to theaction of the principalclause. ThePresentConditionalMood and theform of thePastIndefiniteindicate that theaction of thesubordinateclauseissimultaneouswith that of the principalclause orfollows it.

>e.g. >Theysay itwouldbeimpossible todecideanythingwithouthim.

ThePastConditionalMood and theform of thePastPerfectshow that theaction of thesubordinateclauseprecedes that of the principalclause.

>e.g. >Theysay itwouldhavebeenimpossible todecideanythingwithouthim.

>Itshouldberemembered that thetenses insentences ofunrealconditionarealsousedrelatively inreportedspeech.

>e.g. Hesays thatifhehadtimehewouldgo on ashortholiday.

>Asisseenfrom theexamples, therules of thesequence oftensesarenotobservedwithany of theabovementionedformsexpressingunreality.

>Itisdifferent,however,when theformscan (>may) +infinitiveareused toexpressproblematicactions.Canisfoundonly inclauses ofpurpose,may inclauses ofpurposeand-inobjectclausesafterexpressions offear in the principalclause.

>e.g. >OnSundayswealwaysgooutingso that thechildrencanspend theday in the openair.

Theformscan (>may) +infinitivesare in theIndicativeMoodhere,so therules of thesequence oftensesshouldbeobserved. Theaboveformsexpress thetimerelatively theyshow that theaction of thesubordinateclausefollows that of the principalclause.

>e.g. >OnSundayswealwayswentoutingso that thechildrencouldspend theday in the openair.


3. Theuse of TheSubjunctiveMood in theworks of English and Americanauthors

The 3>dchapterismypracticalinvestigation of the problem of theuse ofdifferentforms of theSubjunctiveMoodby English and Americanwriters.Forthispurpose Ichose thefollowingstoriesincludedinto thetextbookbyMerkulovawhichwestudiedduringour 3year,thereare: AMarriage ofConvenience, TheLuncheon, TheVergerby P.S.Maugham, >Jerusalem the Goldenby M.Drabble, >OnePair of handsby M.Dickens, >ShoppingforOneby A.Cassidy, AStart in Lifeby A.Brookner, The Lord of theRingsbyJ.R.R.Tolkienaswellasourhomereadingmaterial Love storybyErickSegal.

>All in all Ihavecollected 62examples on theuse of theSubjunctiveMood in theaboveliterature.

>Asfaras theConditionalclausesareconcernedtheyarerepresentedby thefollowingcases:

1.  >Refering to theFuture PresentTense

>e.g.If Iwere asentimentalist, andcaredenoughaboutHarvard tohang aphotograph on thewall, itwouldnotbe ofWinthrop House, orMemChurch,but ofDillon.DillonField House.

2.  >Refering to thePastTense

>e.g.Ifyouwere totellany of adozen girlsatTowerCourt,Wellesley, thatOliverBarrett IVhadbeen ayoung ladydailyforthreeweeks andhadnotsleptwithher,theywouldsurelyhavelaughed andseverelyquestioned thefemininity of the girlinvolved.

3.  >Refering to themixedtype

>e.g. >If Ididnotwant tomarry,doyouimagine that Ishouldhavespentthreedaysreading lovelettersfromwomen Ihaveneverseteyes on?

>Therearealsoexampleswhen theunrealconditionisexpressedwith thehelp ofinversion:

>e.g. >Whatinducementwouldtherebeforher togive upheraccustomed life toaccompany inexile a man offorty-nine whoisbynomeans abeauty?

>Somesentencesshow theuse of theSubjunctiveMoodintroducedbyasif,asthough inadverbialclauses ofcomparisondepicting theactionboth:

-simultaneouswith the principalclause:

>e.g. >Itwasasifherexigenttemperamentrequiredimmediateresults.

-prior to it:

>e.g. >Exceptwhitewine,sheproceededasthough Ihadnotspoken.

>Itworthmentioning that theverb tobe infound in twoformsas >was:

>e.g. >Itsnotasif Iwas abettin man.

and (>whatlooksmoreSubjunctive) >werefor theperson insingular:

>e.g. Themanagerstaredathimasthoughhewere aprehistoricmonster.

Anumber ofexamplesarecharacteristic ofemotional >shouldusage toexpresssurprise orindignation of thespeakerabout the realfacts:

>e.g. >Its

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