Реферат Pravomonarhist movement

“>Pravomonarhicheskoe:movement

inBelarus (1905 - 1914gg)


>One of themostinfluentialtrends inRussia'ssocio-politicalmovement of theearly XXcenturywas aconservative-protective orright-monarchist. Theideologicalfoundations ofRussia'sconservativeshadbeenlaidearlier,but theinstitutionalization of thesupporters of ">escort" oftraditionalinstitutionscomesat atimewhen Russiaseized therevolutionaryelements. Theanswer to theradicalization ofsocietywas toconsolidate thesocialforces,spoke insupport ofautocratic power.Across thecountry,haveappearednumerousreactionaryorganization.Amongthemareemerged inSt.Petersburgsociety toactivelyfightagainst the revolution andanarchy, theSociety ofRussianpatriots in Moscow,RussianBrotherhood in Kiev, thePatrioticSociety inTiflis, thetsarist-popularRussiansociety inKazan, the Union ">whiteflag" inNizhnyNovgorod andDozens ofothermonarchistorganizations, whocalled thepeople tofight the revolution.

Themostsignificantpravomonarhicheskimiassociations,whichresearchersoftenrefer to politicalpartieswere ">Russianassembly", ">RussianMonarchistParty, the Union ofRussianpeople" and "Union ofRussian People.Their software andstatutorypositionswerepracticallyidentical. Themainaim,theysaw "thedevelopment ofRussiannationalidentity and astrongassociation of theRussianpeople of allclasses andconditions ofworkfor the commonbenefit ofourdearmotherland - Russiaone andindivisible" [1,pp.35].Ideologues ofconservatismadvocatedownway ofdevelopment of Russia,against theextension ofRussia'sground ofliberal Westernvalues anddemocracy.Theydefended thethenexisting political,socio-economic,religious,spiritual and domesticfoundations ofRussia's life.Into thesacredpreservation ofOrthodoxy,autocracy, andunlimitedRussiannationalchampionships,theysaw thebenefit of Russia.

>In 1906 - 1908gg.pravomonarhicheskoemovementbecomes themostmassivesocio-politicaltrend.Morethan 200towns andvillages of Russiaempireactedmonarchistorganization.However,statistics on the BlackHundreds indifferentsourcesdiffer.Itisestimated that thePoliceDepartment,at thattimetherewereabout 410thousandpeople.ModernscholarYuKir'yanovput thefigureat 399.5thousandpeople [2,pp.31].Themselvesas BlackHundredsnumbers initsranks agreaternumber oflike-mindedpeople - up tothreemillionpeople,givenasactiveparticipants in themovement, andpassive -those whoshared theideology of themovement,aswellasthose whoserved inclose to the BlackHundreds oflocalassociations,suchasOrthodoxBrotherhood, theSocietyhorugvonostsev,temperancesocieties, etc.Thesedifferencesrelate to thefact thatvirtually all thethenParty of Russiahad thevaguecriteriaformembership.

>Itshouldalsobenotedmostvsesoslovnycharacterpravomonarhicheskogomovement thatsethimapartfromparties andorganizations ofliberal andradicalleftorientation.Itwasattendedbyworkers andpeasants,artisans andtradesmen,merchants andintellectuals,clergy andnobles,servants.Inthisleadershiprole in themovementplayedby therepresentatives of theRussianOrthodoxclergy and theRussiannationalintelligentsia.

>MainVserossiiskoipravomonarhicheskoyorganization (the party)was the "Union ofRussian People" (>NRC),formed inSt.Petersburg onNov.8, 1905Hisdepartmentacted inmostprovinces of Russiaempire. Themostactivetheyhavebeenrepresented inBelarus and Ukraine,wheremuchwas theinfluence ofanti-Russianforces:thereweremorethanhalf of allmembers of theNRC.Forexample, inBelarusNRCofficesoperated in 36towns andnumbered initsranksabout 29.5thousandmembers [3,pp.41].Thus, in theVilnaprovinceacted 2organizations (1000),Vitebsk - 9 (10071),Grodno - 3 (900),Minsk 15 (4420),Mogilev - 20 (11652) [4,pp.96].

>Inaddition tooffices of the Union ofRussian People inBelarusoperatedideologicalkinshipNRCorganizationssuchasSociety ">Peasant",founded inlate 1905, andemerged in 1906, ">Russiansuburban Union",whichwaslaterreorganizedas the ">Russianmargins ofsociety."In 1908, asplitsociety, ">peasant"emerged "TheBelarusiansociety",whichincludedrepresentatives of theintelligentsia,civilservants andpeasants.Around thesametime inMinsk,hasbecomeoneorganizationoperatemoreright-wing ">OrthodoxBrotherhood, and inGrodno andVitebskwereworking partybranches" of therightorder."In 1910, inGrodnowascreated ">RussianNational Union ofGrodnoprovince" [5,pp.270 - 271].

>Ingeneral, allpravomonarhicheskieorganizations ofBelarus,despitesomedifferences,stood on thepositions of ">zapadnorusizma",believing that theBelarusians,togetherwith theGreatRussians andLittleRussiansarepart of athree-prongedRussianpeople.Notrecognizing theexistence of aseparateindependentnation ofBelarus, theideologues BlackHundreds,at thesametimepointed outsomeculturalspecifics of theBelarusianpeople and the political,ethno-cultural andspiritualdevelopmentassociatedwith thestrengthening ofBelarusianRussiannation,whichwassupposed tobe adominantempire in Russia, thedominantposition. Themainthreat tothis in thewesternprovinces, intheiropinion,actedPolishelement,whoseinfluenceisstronglyfelt in allspheres of public life.Inthisregard, inan openletter tomembers of the StateDuma and theRussiansocietyisone of themostactivemembers of therightmovement inBelarus DVSkrynchenkonoted: ">Thisisnotleft"tuteyshego ">nonobility,nopettygentry ormerchantclass,whichwouldnotbeokatolicheny andopolyacheny.Thereareonly afewnewlyarrivedRussianlandownersssianisreallyjust ">popdaslave.Andopolyachennye thelocalnobles,headedbyfanaticalpriests,hurrying tofinishherewhattheyhaddone theoldaristocraticPoland,ieokatolichit andopolyachitpeasantry " [6,pp.4].As the principalmeans ofcombating thegrowinginfluence of thePolish-Catholic,hesees thepoliciesaimedatensuring that "theBelarusianpeople toreturn to hisRussianOrthodox...consciousness.Such apolicyis initsessence,accordingSkrynchenko,thereisnoRussification, anddepolonizatsiya. ">Foritspart,say -goes on tosay in his message - thatlocalpeoplereturn to itfromtimeimmemorialRussiannationalconsciousnessisnot thepolicy of"Russification ".Donotusethisbugbear toourside:thistermisoffensive to thelocalRussianpopulation - theBelarusians.Here inancientsomethingmorefundamental Russiathan,forexample, inPenza, andsheiscoveredby thePolishlacquer.And thewholequestion of ">Russification"hereboilsdown to inorder toclear thePolishlacquer " [6,pp.7].Among themeasuresdesigned tostrengthenRussianinfluence inBelarus, DVSkrynchenkocalls toestablishknowledge of thehistory of thelocalregion, thepublication ofrelevantliterature, theappointment to allpositions in thelocalcivil andmilitaryadministrationsolelythose of theOrthodoxreligion, theestablishment ofspecialprotivokatolicheskihmissionaries.Alsoofferedthroughout theprovince tointroducecompulsoryeducation in theRussianOrthodox-nationalbasis [6,pp.14 - 15].

>Pravomonarhicheskieassociationtookanactivepart in theelections to the StateDuma.And thecreation ofsome ofthemastime andwasdue toconduct ofelectioncampaigns.Forexample, the ">Russiansuburban Union,whichadvocated a"united andindivisible Russia, "theelimination of theeconomicimpact of thePolishlandowners and theJewishbourgeoisie anddemanded toprohibitparticipation in theelections ofPoles andJews,with thesupport ofgovernmentagencies and theOrthodoxChurchheld in theDuma II 15Deputies.Inelections to theDuma, III and IV of theright in theBelarusianprovincesreceivedanabsolutemajority ofseats.Thus, in the lastDuma, 30 of the 36deputiesfromBelaruswere in therightblock [6,pp.292].

>Thuspravomonarhicheskoemovementwasanimportantfactor insocial life ofBelarus in theperiod.Activities ofright-wingparties,unions andothercompaniescontributed to theformation of thelocalpopulationall-Russianidentity and theconsolidation of theforcesworking on theonehand,against the revolution, on theotherhand, theimposition ofBelarusianforeign to thePolishinfluence.


>References

1.Klykov, V. Union ofRussian People in thestrugglefor Russia / V.Klykov. - Moscow:Russian Journal, 2005.

2.Kiryanov,YINumber andcomposition of theextremeright-wingparties in Russia (1905 - 1917gg):Trends andcauses ofchanges /YIKiryanov. //NationalHistory. - 1999. - № 5. -S.29 - 43.

3.Bondarenko,KMRussian andBelarusianmonarchists in thebeginning of XXcentury. /KMBondarenko,DSLavrinovic. -Mogilev, 2003.

4.Suvalova,EN Thehistory ofsocialmovements and politicalparties:Textbook.manual /ENSuvalova. -Minsk, 2005.

5.Tile,VN Participation of theOrthodoxclergy in thediocese ofGrodnoelections IVGosudarstvennuyuiDuma /VNTile /ЗаходнірегіенBelaruseyeshaveappearedгісторикаў ікраязнаўцаў:ZB.Sci. Art. -Grodno:GrDU, 2006.

6.Skrynchenko, DV Thetragedy of theBelarusianpeople / DVSkrynchenko. -Minsk, 1908.


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