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Nouns

>Contents

 

>Part 1

 

Thediscovery ofnouns

1.Introduction

2.Classification ofnouns in English

3.Nouns andpronouns

>Part 2

>Semantic vs.grammaticalnumber

1.Number inspecific languages

2.Obligatoriness ofnumbermarking

3.Numberagreement

4.Types ofnumber

5.Conclusion

>Part 3

>Bibliography


Thediscovery ofnouns

 

>Introduction

Theword ">noun"comesfrom thelatinnomenmeaning ">name." WordclasseslikenounswerefirstdescribedbySanskritgrammarianPini andancientGreekslikeDionysiosThrax, anddefined interms oftheirmorphologicalproperties.Forexample, inAncientGreek,nounscanbeinflectedforgrammaticalcase,suchasdative oraccusative.Verbs, on theotherhand,canbeinflectedfortenses,suchaspast,present orfuture,whilenounscannot.Aristotlealsohad anotion ofonomata (>nouns) andrhemata (>verbs)which,however,doesnotexactlycorrespondournotions ofverbs andnouns.Inherdissertation,Vinokurovahas amoredetaileddiscussion of thehistoricalorigin of thenotion of anoun.

>Differentdefinitions ofnouns

>Expressions ofnaturallanguagewillhavepropertiesatdifferentlevels.Theyhaveformalproperties,likewhatkinds ofmorphologicalprefixes orsuffixestheycantake, andwhatkinds ofotherexpressionstheycancombinewith.buttheyalsohavesemanticproperties,i.e.propertiespertaining totheirmeaning. Thedefinition ofnouns on thetop ofthispageisthus aformaldefinition.Thatdefinitionisuncontroversial, andhas theadvantage that itallowsus toeffectivelydistinguishnounsfromnon-nouns.However, ithas thedisadvandage that itdoesnotapply tonouns in all languages.Forexample inRussian,therearenodefinitearticles,soonecannotdefinenounsbymeans ofthose.Therearealsoseveralattempts ofdefiningnouns interms oftheirsemanticproperties.Many ofthesearecontroversial,butsomearediscussedbelow.

>Namesforthings

>Intraditionalschoolgrammars,oneoftenencounters thedefinition ofnouns thattheyare all andonlythoseexpressions thatrefer to aperson,place,thing,event,substance,quality, oridea, etc.Thisis asemanticdefinition.Ithasbeencriticizedby contemporarylinguistsasbeingquiteuninformative.Part of the problemis that thedefinitionmakesuse ofrelativelygeneralnouns (">thing," ">phenomenon," ">event") todefinewhatnounsare. Theexistence ofsuchgeneralnounsshowsus thatnounsareorganized intaxonomichierarchies.Butotherkinds ofexpressionsarealsoorganized inhierarchies.Forexample all of theverbs ">stroll," ">saunter," ">stride," and ">tread"aremorespecificwordsthan themoregeneral ">walk." Thelatterismorespecificthan theverb ">move."But itisunlikely thatsuchhierarchiescanbeused todefinenouns andverbs.Furthermore,aninfluentialtheoryhas it thatverbslike ">kill" or ">die"refer toevents,[2][3] andsotheyfallunder thedefinition.Similarly,adjectiveslike ">yellow" or ">difficult"mightbethought torefer toqualities, andadverbslike ">outside" or ">upstairs"seem torefer toplaces.Worsestill, atripinto thewoodscanbereferred toby theverbs ">stroll" or ">walk."Butverbs,adjectives andadverbsarenotnouns, andnounsaren'tverbs.So thedefinitionisnotparticularlyhelpful indistinguishingnounsfromotherparts ofspeech.

>Prototypicallyreferentialexpressions

>Anothersemanticdefinition ofnounsis thattheyareprototypicallyreferential.[4]Thatdefinitionisalsonotveryhelpful indistinguishingactualnounsfromverbs.But itmaystillcorrectlyidentify acoreproperty ofnounhood.Forexample,wewilltend tousenounslike ">fool" and ">car"whenwewish torefer tofools andcars,respectively. Thenotion thatthisisprototypocalreflects thefact thatsuchnounscanbeused,eventhoughnothingwith thecorrespondingpropertyisreferred to:

Johnisnofool.

>If Ihad acar,I'dgo toMarakech.

Thefirstsentenceabovedoesn'trefer toanyfools,nordoes the secondonerefer toanyparticularcar.

>Predicateswithidentitycriteria

The BritishlogicianPeter ThomasGeachproposed averysubtlesemanticdefinition ofnouns. Henoticed thatadjectiveslike ">same"canmodifynouns,butnootherkinds ofparts ofspeech,likeverbs oradjectives.Notonly that,buttherealsodoesn'tseem toexistany >otherexpressionswithsimilarmeaning thatcanmodifyverbs andadjectives.Consider thefollowingexamples.

>Good: John andBillparticipated in the >samefight.

>Bad: *John andBill >samelyfought.

>Thereisno Englishadverb ">samely."Insomeother languages,likeCzech,howeverthereareadverbscorresponding to ">samely."Hence, inCzech, thetranslation of the lastsentencewouldbefine;however, itwouldmean that John andBillfought in thesameway:not thattheyparticipated in the >samefight.Geachproposed thatwecouldexplainthis,ifnounsdenotelogicalpredicatewith >identitycriteria.Anidentitycriterionwouldallowus toconclude,forexample, that ">person xattime 1is thesameperson >asperson yattime 2."Differentnounscanhavedifferentidentitycriteria. Awellknownexample ofthisisdue toGupta:

>National Airlinestransported 2million >passengers in 1979.

>National Airlinestransported (>atleast) 2million >persons in 1979.

>Given that, ingeneral, allpassengersarepersons, the lastsentenceaboveought tofollowlogicallyfrom thefirstone.But itdoesn't.Itiseasy toimagine,forexample, that onaverage,everyperson whotravelledwithNational Airlines in 1979,travelledwiththemtwice.In thatcase,onewouldsay that theairlinetransported 2million >passengers >butonly 1million >persons.Thus, theway thatwecount >passengers >isn'tnecessarily thesameas theway thatwecount >persons.Putsomewhatdifferently:At twodifferenttimes,youmaycorrespond to twodistinct >passengers,eventhoughyouareone and thesameperson.For aprecisedefinition of >identitycriteria,seeGupta.

>Recently, thelinguistMarkBakerhasproposed thatGeach'sdefinition ofnouns interms ofidentitycriteriaallowsus to >explain thecharacteristicproperties ofnouns. Heargues thatnounscanco-occurwith (>in-)definitearticles andnumerals, andare ">prototypicallyreferential" >becausetheyare all andonlythoseparts ofspeech thatprovideidentitycriteria.Baker'sproposalsarequite new, andlinguistsarestillevaluatingthem.

>Classification ofnouns in English

>Propernouns and commonnouns

>Propernouns (>alsocalledpropernames)are thenames ofuniqueentities.Forexample, ">Janet", ">Jupiter" and ">Germany"arepropernouns.Propernounsareusuallycapitalized in English andmostother languages thatuse theLatinalphabet, andthisisoneeasyway torecognisethem.However, inGermannouns of alltypesarecapitalized. Theconvention ofcapitalizing allnounswaspreviouslyused in English,buthaslongfallenintodisuse.

>Allothernounsarecalled commonnouns.Forexample, "girl", ">planet", and ">country"are commonnouns.

>Sometimes thesamewordcanfunctionasboth a commonnoun and apropernoun,whereonesuchentityisspecial.Forexample: ">Therecanbemanygods,butthereisonlyoneGod."Thisissomewhatmagnified inHebrewwhere ELmeansgod (>as in agod),God (>as in theGod), and El (thename of aparticularCanaanitegod).

The commonmeaning of theword orwordsconstituting apropernounmaybeunrelated to theobject towhich thepropernounrefers.Forexample,someonemightbenamed ">TigerSmith"despitebeingneither atigernor asmith.Forthisreason,propernounsareusuallynottranslatedbetween languages,althoughtheymaybetransliterated.Forexample, theGermansurnameKndelbecomesKnodel orKnoedel in English (>not theliteralDumpling).However, thetranslation ofplacenames and thenames ofmonarchs,popes, andnon-contemporaryauthorsis common andsometimesuniversal.Forinstance, thePortuguesewordLisboabecomesLisbon in English; the English LondonbecomesLondres in French; and theGreekAristotelsbecomesAristotle in English.


>Countnouns and massnouns

 

>Countnouns (or >countablenouns)are commonnouns thatcantake aplural,cancombinewithnumerals orquantifiers (>e.g. ">one", "two", ">several", ">every", ">most"), andcantakeanindefinitearticle ("a" or ">an").Examples ofcountnounsare ">chair", ">nose", and ">occasion".

Massnouns (or >non-countablenouns)differfromcountnouns inprecisely thatrespect:theycan'ttakeplural orcombinewithnumberwords orquantifiers.Examplesfrom Englishinclude ">laughter", ">cutlery", ">helium", and ">furniture".Forexample, itisnotpossible torefer to "afurniture" or ">threefurnitures".Thisistrue,eventhough thefurniturereferred tocould, inprinciple,becounted.Thus thedistinctionbetween mass andcountnounsshouldn'tbemade interms ofwhatsorts ofthings thenouns >refer to,butrather interms of how thenouns >presenttheseentities. Theseparatepagefor massnouncontainsfurtherexplanation ofthispoint.

>Somewordsfunction in thesingularas acountnoun and,without a change in thespelling,as a massnoun in theplural:shecaught a >fish,wecaught >fish;he Shot a >deer,they Shotsomedeer; thecraftwasdilapidated, thepierwaschockablockwithcraft.

>CollectiveNouns

>Collectivenounsarenouns thatrefer togroupsconsisting ofmorethanoneindividual orentity,evenwhentheyareinflectedfor thesingular.Examplesinclude ">committee," ">herd" and ">school" (ofherring).Thesenounshaveslightlydifferentgrammaticalpropertiesthanothernouns.Forexample, thenounphrases thattheyheadcanserve of thesubject of acollectivepredicate,evenwhentheyareinflectedfor thesingular. Acollectivepredicateis apredicate thatnormallycan'ttake asingularsubject.Anexample of thelatteris "surround the house."

>Good: Theboyssurrounded the house.

>Bad: *Theboysurrounded the house.

>Good: Thecommitteesurrounded the house.

>Concretenouns andabstractnouns

>Concretenounsrefer todefiniteobjectsobjects inwhichyouuseatleastone ofyoursenses.Forinstance, ">chair", ">apple", or ">Janet".Abstractnouns on theotherhandrefer toideas orconcepts,suchas ">justice" or ">hate".Whilethisdistinctionissometimesuseful, theboundarybetween the two ofthemisnotalwaysclear.In English,manyabstractnounsareformedbyaddingnoun-formingsuffixes ("->ness", "->ity", "->tion") toadjectives orverbs.Examplesare ">happiness", ">circulation" and ">serenity".

>Nouns andpronouns

>Nounphrasescanbereplacedbypronouns,suchas ">he", "it", ">which", and ">those", inorder toavoidrepetition orexplicitidentification, orforotherreasons.Forexample, in thesentence ">Janetthought thathewasweird", theword ">he"is apronounstanding inplace of thename of theperson inquestion. The Englishwordonecanreplaceparts ofnounphrases, and itsometimesstands infor anoun.Anexampleisgivenbelow:

>John'scarisnewerthan theone thatBillhas.

>Butonecanalso stand inforbiggersubparts of anounphrase.Forexample, in thefollowingexample,onecan stand infor newcar.

>This newcarischeaperthan thatone.

>LIST

>CHAIRPAPERBOOKCAKEDRINKCANDYCAKEFUDGESISSORSKEYBOARDSPEAKERSCARBIKEPENCILPEN

>Inlinguistics,grammaticalnumberis amorphologicalcategorycharacterizedby theexpression ofquantitythroughinflection oragreement.Asanexample,consider the Englishsentencesbelow:

>Thatapple on thetableisfresh.

>Those twoapples on thetablearefresh.

Thenumber ofapplesismarked on thenoun ">apple",singularnumber (>oneitem) vs. ">apples",pluralnumber (>morethanoneitem) , on thedemonstrative, ">that/those", and on theverb, ">is/are".Note that,especially in the secondsentence,this informationcanbeconsideredredundant,sincequantityisalreadyindicatedby thenumeral "two".

Alanguagehasgrammaticalnumberwhenitsnounsaresubdividedintomorphologicalclassesaccording to thequantitytheyexpress,such that:

>Everynounbelongs to asinglenumberclass. (>Numberpartitionsnounsintodisjointclasses.)

>Nounmodifiers (>suchasadjectives) andverbshavedifferentformsforeachnumberclass, andmustbeinflected tomatch thenumber of thenounstheyrefer to. (>Numberisanagreementcategory.)

>Thisis thecase in English:everynouniseithersingular orplural (afew,suchas ">fish",canbeeither,according tocontext), andatleastsomemodifiers ofnouns namely thedemonstratives, thepersonalpronouns, thearticles, andverbs areinflected toagreewith thenumber of thenounstheyrefer to: ">thiscar" and ">thesecars"arecorrect,while "*>thiscars" or "*>thesecar"areungrammatical.

>Not all languageshavenumberas agrammaticalcategory.Inthose thatdonot,quantitymustbeexpressedeitherdirectly,withnumerals, orindirectly,throughoptionalquantifiers.However,many ofthese languagescompensatefor thelack ofgrammaticalnumberwithanextensivesystem ofmeasurewords.

Theword ">number"isalsoused inlinguistics todescribe thedistinctionbetweencertaingrammaticalaspects thatindicate thenumber oftimesaneventoccurs,suchas thesemelfactiveaspect, theiterativeaspect, etc.For thatuse of theterm,see ">Grammaticalaspect".


>Semantic vs.grammaticalnumber

>All languagesareable tospecify thequantity ofreferents.Theymaydosobylexicalmeanswithwordssuchas English afew, >some, >one, two, >fivehundred.However,noteverylanguagehas agrammaticalcategory ofnumber.Grammaticalnumberisexpressedbymorphological and/orsyntacticmeans.Thatis, itisindicatedbycertaingrammaticalelements,suchasthroughaffixes ornumberwords.Grammaticalnumbermaybethought ofas theindication ofsemanticnumberthroughgrammar.

>Languages thatexpressquantityonlybylexicalmeanslack agrammaticalcategory ofnumber.Forinstance, inKhmer,neithernounsnorverbscarryanygrammatical informationconcerningnumber:such informationcanonlybeconveyedbylexicalitemssuchas >khlah '>some', >pii-bey 'afew', andso on.

>Most languages of the worldhaveformalmeans toexpressdifferences ofnumber. Themostwidespreaddistinction,asfound in English andmanyother languages,involves asimpletwo-waynumbercontrastbetweensingular andplural (>car / >cars; >child / >children, etc.). Othermoreelaboratesystems ofnumberaredescribedbelow.

>Number inspecific languages

English

Englishistypical ofmost world languages, indistinguishingonlybetweensingular andpluralnumber. Thepluralform of awordisusuallycreatedbyadding thesuffix -(>e)s.Commonexceptionsinclude thepronouns,whichhaveirregularplurals,as in I >versus >we,becausetheyareancient andfrequentlyusedwords.

French

>Initswrittenform, Frenchdeclinesnounsfornumber (>singular orplural).Inspeech,however, themajority ofnouns (andadjectives)arenotactuallydeclinedfornumber.Thisisbecause thetypicalpluralsuffix ->s,issilent, andthusdoesnotreallyindicate a change inpronunciation; thepluralarticle ordetermineris the realindicator ofplurality (>butsee >Liaison (French)for a commonexception).However,pluralnumberstillexists inspoken Frenchbecause asignificantpercentage ofirregularpluralsdifferfrom thesingular inpronunciation;forexample, >cheval ">horse"ispronounced [>val],while >chevaux ">horses"ispronounced [>vo].

>Hebrew

>InHebrew,mostnounshaveonlysingular andpluralforms,suchas >sefer/sfarim ">book/books",butsomehavesingular,plural, anddualforms,suchas >yom/yomaim/yamim ">day/twodays/[two ormore]days".Somewordsoccursooften inpairs thatwhatused tobe thedualformisnow thegeneralplural,suchas >ayin/eynayim ">eye/eyes",usedeven in asentencelike, "Thespiderhaseighteyes."Adjectives,verbs, andpronounshaveonlysingular andplural,with thepluralforms ofthesebeingusedwithdualnouns.

>Obligatoriness ofnumbermarking

>Inmany languages,suchas English,numberisobligatorilyexpressed ineverygrammaticalcontext; inother languages,however,numberexpressionis limited tocertainclasses ofnouns,suchasanimates orreferentiallyprominentnouns (>aswithproximateforms inmostAlgonquian languages,opposed toreferentiallylessprominentobviativeforms).

Avery commonsituationisforpluralnumber tonotbemarkedifthereisanyotherovertindication ofnumber,asforexample inHungarian:virg ">flower";virgok ">flowers";hatvirg ">sixflowers".

>Numberagreement

>Verbconjugation

>Inmany languages,verbsareconjugatedfornumber.Using Frenchasanexample,onesaysjevois (Isee),butnousvoyons (>wesee). Theverbvoir (tosee)changesfromvois in thefirstpersonsingular tovoyons in theplural.Ineveryday English,thisoftenhappens in thethirdperson (>shesees,theysee),butnot inothergrammaticalpersons,exceptwith theverb tobe.

>Agreement inotherlexicalitems

>Adjectivesoftenagreewith thenumber of thenountheymodify.Forexample, in French,onesaysungrandarbre [>gtab] "atalltree",butdeuxgrandsarbres [>dgzab] "twotalltrees". Thesingularadjectivegrandbecomesgrands in theplural,unlike English ">tall",whichremainsunchanged.

Otherdeterminersmayagreewithnumber.In English, thedemonstratives ">this", "that" change to ">these", ">those" in theplural, and theindefinitearticle "a", ">an"iseitheromitted orchanges to ">some".In French andGerman, thedefinitearticleshavegenderdistinctions in thesingularbutnot theplural.InSpanish andPortuguese,bothdefinite andindefinitearticlesareinflectedforgender andnumber,e.g.Portugueseo, a "the" (>singular,masc./fem.),os,as "the" (>plural,masc./fem.);um,uma ">a(n)" (>singular,masc./fem.),uns,umas ">some" (>plural,masc./fem.)

>In theFinnishsentenceYtovatpimeit ">Nightsaredark",eachwordreferring to thepluralnounyt ">nights" (">night" =y)ispluralized (>night-PLis-PLdark-PL-partitive).

>Exceptions

>Sometimes,grammaticalnumberwillnotrepresent theactualquantity.Forexample, inAncientGreekneuterpluralstook asingularverb. Thepluralform of apronounmayalsobeapplied to asingleindividualas asign ofimportance,respect orgenerality,as in the >pluralismajestatis, theT-Vdistinction, and thegeneric ">you",found inmany languages, or, in English,whenusing thesingular ">they"forgender-neutrality.

>Collectivenouns

Acollectivenounis aword thatdesignates a group ofobjects orbeingsregardedas awhole,suchas ">flock", ">team", or ">corporation".Althoughmany languagestreatcollectivenounsassingular, inotherstheymaybeinterpretedasplural.In British English,phrasessuchas thecommitteearemeeting >are common (theso-calledagreement insensu "inmeaning", thatis,with themeaning of anoun,ratherthanwithitsform). Theuse ofthistype ofconstructionvarieswithdialect andlevel offormality.

>Types ofnumber

>Singularversusplural

>Inmost languageswithgrammaticalnumber,nouns, andsometimesotherparts ofspeech,have twoforms, thesingular,foroneinstance of aconcept, and theplural,formorethanoneinstance.Usually, thesingularis theunmarkedform of aword, and thepluralisobtainedbyinflecting thesingular.Thisis thecase in English:car/cars,box/boxes,man/men.Theremaybeexceptionalnounswhosepluralisidentical to thesingular:onefish / twofish.

>Collectiveversussingulative

>Some languagesdifferentiatebetween abasicform, thecollective,whichisindifferent inrespect tonumber, and amorecomplicatedderivedformforsingleentities, thesingulative,forexampleJapanese andsomeBrythonic languages. Aroughexample in Englishis ">snowflake",whichmaybeconsidered asingulativeform of ">snow" (>although Englishhasnoproductiveprocess offormingsingulativenouns, andnosingulativemodifiers).Inother languages,singulativescanbeproductivelyformedfromcollectivenouns;e.g. StandardArabicajar ">stone" ajar "(>individual)stone",baqar ">cattle" baqar "(>single)cow"

>Dualnumber

Thedistinctionbetween a ">singular"number (>one) and a ">plural"number (>morethanone)found in Englishisnot theonlypossibleclassification.Anotheroneis ">singular" (>one), ">dual" (two) and ">plural" (>morethan two).Dualnumberexisted inProto-Indo-European,persisted inmany of thenowextinctancientIndo-European languages thatdescendedfromitSanskrit,AncientGreek andGothicforexampleandcanstillbefound in afewmodernIndo-European languagessuchasIcelandic andSlovenelanguage.ManymoremodernIndo-European languagesshowresidualtraces of thedual,as in the Englishdistinctionsbothversus all andbetterversus best.

>ManySemitic languagesalsohavedualnumber.

>Trialnumber

Thetrialnumberis agrammaticalnumberreferring to '>threeitems', incontrast to '>singular' (>oneitem), '>dual' (twoitems), and '>plural' (>four ormoreitems).Tolomako,Lihir andTokPisin (>thoughonly initspronouns)havetrialnumber.

>Thereis ahierarchybetweennumbercategories: Nolanguagedistinguishes atrialunlesshaving adual, andnolanguagehasdualwithout aplural (>Greenberg 1972).

>Some languages,suchasLatvian,have anullarform,usedfornouns thatrefer tozeroitems. Other languagesuseeither thesingular or thepluralformforzero. English,alongwith theotherGermanic languages andmostRomance languages,uses theplural. Frenchnormallyuses thesingular,instead.

>Distributiveplural

>Distributivepluralnumber,formanyinstancesviewedasindependentindividuals (>e.g. inNavajo).

>Inmost languages, thesingularisformallyunmarked,whereas thepluralismarked insomeway. Other languages,mostnotably theBantu languages,markboth thesingular and theplural,forinstanceSwahili (>seeexampleabove). Thethirdlogicalpossibility,rarelyfound in languages,isunmarkedpluralcontrastingwithmarkedsingular.

>Elementsmarkingnumbermayappear onnouns andpronouns independent-marking languages or onverbs andadjectives inhead-marking languages.


English
(>dependent-marking)

WesternApache
(>head-marking)

>Paulisteaching thecowboy. >Paulidilohyichgaah.

>Paulisteaching thecowboy>s.

>Paulidilohyich>da>gaah.

>In the Englishsentenceabove, thepluralsuffix ->sisadded to thenoun >cowboy.In the WesternApache, ahead-markinglanguage,equivalent, apluralprefix >da-isadded to theverb >yichgaah ">heisteachinghim",resulting in >yichdagaah ">heisteachingthem"whilenoun >idiloh ">cowboy"isunmarkedfornumber.

>Numberparticles

>Pluralityissometimesmarkedby aspecializednumberparticle (ornumberword).Thisisfrequent inAustralian andAustronesian languages.AnexamplefromTagalogis theword >mga:compare >bahay "house"with >mgabahay ">houses".InKapampangan,certainnounsoptionallydenotepluralitybysecondarystress: >inglalki "man" and >ingbabi ">woman"become >dingllki ">men" and >dingbbi ">women".


>Conclusion

>Wehaveinvestigated thenoun, themainpart ofspeech in Englishgrammar.Wechose thenounas thetheme ofourcourseworkbecauseweinterested in it.Weuseddifferentkind ofreferences toinvestigate thenoun.Nounscanbeclassifiedfurtherascountnouns,whichnameanything thatcanbecounted (>fourbooks, twocontinents, afewdishes, adozenbuildings); massnouns (ornon-countnouns),whichnamesomething thatcan'tbecounted (>water,air,energy,blood); andcollectivenouns,whichcantake asingularformbutarecomposed ofmorethanoneindividualperson oritems (>jury,team,class,committee,herd).Weshouldnote thatsomewordscanbeeither acountnoun or anon-countnoundepending on howthey'rebeingused in asentence.Whether ornot anounisuncountableisdeterminedbyitsmeaning:anuncountablenounrepresentssomethingwhichtends tobeviewedas awhole oras asingleentity,ratherthanasone of anumber ofitemswhichcanbecountedasindividualunits.Singularverbformsareusedwithuncountablenouns.Uncountablenounsaresubstances,concepts etc thatwecannotdivideintoseparateelements.Wecannot ">count"them.Forexample,wecannotcount ">milk".Wecancount ">bottles ofmilk" or ">litres ofmilk",butwecannotcount ">milk"itself.Weusuallytreatuncountablenounsassingular.Weuse asingularverb.Countablenounsareeasy torecognize.Theyarethings thatwecancount.Forexample: ">pen".Wecancountpens.Wecanhaveone, two,three ormorepens.Wecannotsay that itisfinishedinvestigation ofthistheme,becausewearegoing tocontinueitsinvestigation inourdiplomawork.


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