Реферати українською » Иностранный язык » Список + все теми з англійської мови для здачі випускного іспиту в партії 11 класі 2001 року

Реферат Список + все теми з англійської мови для здачі випускного іспиту в партії 11 класі 2001 року

manager although they do not have that tittle. The vice- chancellors of a university, the president of a students union or a chief librarian are all managers. They have the responsibility to use the resources of their organization effectively and economically to achieve its objectives.

Managers are to forecast, plan, organize, coordinate, control and motivate other workers. In most companies the activities of managers depend on the level at which he (she) is working. Top managers such as the chairmen and directors, will be more involved in long range planning, policy making and the relations of the company with the outside world. They will be making decisions on the future of the company, the sort of product lines it should develop, the way it should face up to the competition, the means of diversifying, etc.

On the other hand, middle management and supervisions are generally making the day- to-day decisions, which help an organization to run efficiently and smoothly. They must response to the pressure of the job, which may mean dealing with unhappy customers, chasing up supplies, meeting an urgent order or sorting out technical problems. Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.

In carrying out management functions, such as planning, organizing, motivating and controlling, a manager will be continually making decisions. Decision-making is a key management responsibility. Some decisions are often the routine kind. They are decisions, which are made fairly quickly and are based on judgement. Other decisions are often intuitive ones. Before making a decision the manager will carefully assess" the options, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Thus any manager is to be a bit challenging person.

Sport and healthy living guide

They say, "Health is above wealth." One of the first duties we owe to ourselves is to keep our bodies in perfect health. If your body suffers from any disorder, our mind suffers with it, and we are unable to make much progress in knowledge, and we are unfit to perform those duties, which are required of us in social life.

There are certain laws of health which deserve particular attention and they are so simple that even a child can learn them. A certain amount of exercise is necessary to keep the body in perfect condition. All the powers (mental and bodily) we possess are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse. Moderation in eating and drinking, reasonable hours of labour and study, enough sleeping time (not less than 7-8 hours a day), regularity in exercise, recreation and rest, cleanliness lay the foundations for health and long healthy happy life.

Thousands of people consider sports to be very helpful in gaining good health. That's why every country pays much attention to developing sports. It is sport that helps to bring up physically strong, strong-willed, courageous and energetic people.

In the last ten years recreational sport has become extremely popular, and, according to doctors is absolutely essential for a long and healthy life.

The reasons of this enormous interest in sport of all kinds are varied. When you ask people why they spend so much time, effort, and sometimes money, they will talk about the physical benefits (feeling fit, increasing stamina, sleeping better, the chance of living a more active life), psychological benefits (self-discipline and respect, a sense of personal achievement, relaxation, getting rid of aggression), and the social advantages (meeting people with similar interests, the team spirit). However, the social aspect seems to be more important for men than for women. Very often, enjoying a drink with friends after the match is as important for the former as a physical activity itself. The latter generally see sport as a way of keeping fit rather than anything else.

Of course, some people don’t consider sport to be a hobby, it is an everyday work for them. Much is spoken now about problems in professional sport. There is a lot drug taking in sport. There is too much pressure on young sports people. Mountaineering and air sports such as hang-gliding, each kill at least 16 people every year. In one Sports Council study of 28,000 people, football was found responsible for more than a quarter of 2,000 injuries seen every year. But still many people are involved in professional sport and millions of people can not live without it. They prefer watching sporting events rather than taking part in them. They are so-called sport-fans. They pack stadiums during sport matches and competitions, they sit glued to the TV, they are ready to give every moral support to their favourite sportsmen or teams.

In the meantime thousands of ordinary people devote their spare time to going in for sports. They play indoor and outdoor games: volleyball, basketball, table tennis, hockey, lawn tennis. The number of participants and spectators show that the most popular games are basketball, hockey and, of course, football. A lot of people go in for track-and-field athletics, cycling, boxing, wrestling, gymnastics and so on.

Hockey, figure skating, skiing and skating are among the most popular winter sports. In summer swimming is enjoyed by millions of people. There are also many indoor swimming pools, which makes swimming possible all the year round. Cycling is a useful exercise, too, because it takes you out into the fresh air and gives much work to all the muscles. So if you arrange your day correctly you can find an opportunity for sports.

Physical training is an essential part of young people's development. All pupils and students have regular training at PT lessons. These classes are enjoyed by everybody as they give a lot of energy, develop muscles, make pupils strong, quick and healthy. From time to time different kinds of competitions are organized at school or between schools. The most popular sports at school are basketball, football and volleyball. Besides, pupils and students attend a lot of sports clubs and sports sections after classes, where they take up their favourite kind of sport.

Indeed, sport is a part of everyday life of many generations all other the world. So if you think that physical fitness and health are important you are to go in for sports.


Those who live in the country like to find themselves in large cities with their shops, cinemas, crowds of people. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains with nothing to do but walking and bathing, lazying in the sun. Most travelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them - beautiful views of waterfalls, forests, unusual plants and animals. These photos will remind them of the happy time of holiday.

Modern life is impossible without travelling. Of course the fastest way of travelling is by plane. But many people make their choice on travelling by train as with a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. Travelling by train is of course slower than by air but it also has its advantages.

If you are going to travel by train you’d better book seats beforehand because many people are fond of travelling by train. There are some reasons why people choose railroad. Train is the cheap means of travelling. If it is summer outside it will be better to think of your trip before the vocation starts. To understand how true this is, you only have to go to a railway station. There you will see hundreds of people hurrying to catch a train. You’ll waste a lot of time standing near the booking-office trying to buy a ticket.

Modern trains have very comfortable seats in all passenger cars, and there are sleeping-cars and dining-cars which make even the longest journey enjoyable. You can buy first-class, second-class and third-class sleepers in a separate compartment. If you are early before the train starts you can leave your suit-cases in the compartment and walk up and down the platform. Some people forget when and from which platform and track their train will be off. They can always ask for the track, platform and train numbers at the railroad station information bureau and also get information about next trains and their schedules. There are express, slow and long-distance trains. If you want to go somewhere and get there as quickly as possible you’d better know that express trains only stop at the largest stations while slow trains stop at all stations. You can get to far countries only by a long-distance train.

Once you are in your compartment you have to ask the guide to bring in the bedding. There are usually two lower and two upper berths in a third-class sleeper compartment. Some people like to occupy upper berths because it is more convenient and exciting to travel. During your way on the train you can read newspapers, books, look out of the window, drink the tea, communicate with your neighbors or sleep. I prefer to look out of the window, because you can see the country you are passing through, and not only the clouds as when you are flying. You can have something to eat at the stations when the train makes stops.

These are many ways of traveling - by train, by plain, by ship, on foot. Everyone chooses his favourite one. My favourite way is traveling by plain. And not because it is very comfortable. It is exciting. I also like traveling by train. I’ve traveled this way a lot. When you are in the train you can see the beauty of nature.

I envy the tourists because I think that they study geography traveling and visiting different parts of the world. They can tell you many things which you didn’t know before.

They are interesting people from whom you can learn much new for yourself. Any kind of travel helps you to understand many things that you can never see or learn at home. Though you may read about them in books and newspapers.

As for me I’d like to have a coach tour to some foreign country. Coach tours are planned and I’ll have a chance to do a lot of sightseeings and have a good rest at the same time.


Since ancient times nature ha& served Man, being the source of his life. Humans have been living on this planet fer two million years and in the last tw® hundred years humans have made a mess ©f the planet; chopped trees^ killed animals, polluted air^ land, water, etc. Because efthat we new have a let of problems I'll name just a few of them: 1. the greenhouse; 2. killing forests and animals; 3-. water, air, land pollution; 4. rubbish problems; P.S. nuclear power.

The earth has been getting hotter because we are producing too many greenhouse gases. These gases hold heat. Trees and plants help to take gases, such as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but we have now destroyed too many trees. There aren't enough trees and plants to do this job. We make carbon dioxide when we burn wood or drive cars. Other dangerous gases are in refrigerators and spray cans. Polluting gases fall as acid rains Acid rain is a kind of air pollution. It is caused-by factories that bum-coal or oil or gas. These-factories send smoke high into the air. The wind often carries the smoke far from the factories.

The ram in many places isn't natural and clean any more. It's full of

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