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Реферат Теоретична граматика

Лекції бабусіШмариной...LECTURE 1.

>THEME:Introductioninto the science ofGRAMMAR.

>PLAN.

1. Theobject ofGrammar. Theproperty ofGrammar.

2.Normative &theoreticalGrammar.

3. Thebasicunits oflanguage.

4.Divisions ofGrammar.

5.Language &speech.

6. Theparadigmatic &syntagmatic relations.

1.It'sgenerallyknown, thatlanguageis asystem. First of all, thesystem of

3constituentparts:PHONOLOGY,LEXICOLOGY &GRAMMAR.

>According to thetraditionalpoint ofview,phonology &grammar dealwithgeneralcategories,suchasvowels,consonants,nouns,words,subjects etc.Thatmeans thatstatements,concerningsuchphenomenamayberelated to awholeclass ofhomogeniousthings.Inotherwords,suchphenomenaare of thegeneralcharacter.

>Lexicology, on thecontrary,dealswithindividualunits:words( orlinguisticsigns).Hence itfollows thatlexicologicalstatementsare of aspecialcharacter,forsuchstatementsrefer toeverysingleunit of thevocabulary.E.g.: ,,Dog'' -denotes acertain domesticanimal, afriend to a man.It'sanindividualpet.Butifweuse theword in theform ,,>Dogs"(pl.), itbecomes ageneralpet; thatconcerns thegreatnumber ofotherwords:tigers,students... .Each of theabovementionedconstituentparts oflanguageisinvestigatedby acorrespondinglinguisticdiscipline.

>Phonologyisdescribedby the science ofphonology.Thelexicaldescription oflanguageisdescribedbylexicology.Grammarisdescribedbygrammar. Nolanguagecanexistwithoutvocabulary,butonlyGrammargives ahumanthought amateriallinguisticform,thanks toitsabstractcharacter.It's akindofself-tuningsystem.Grammaris theresult of alongtimeabstractingwork ofhumanmind.Grammarabstractsitselffrom theparticular &concrete andbuildsitsrules &laws,takingintoconsiderationonly the commonfeatures ofgroups &words.That'swhyGrammarisalwayscomparedwithGeometry.Abstractcharacteris the1stcharacteristicfeature ofGrammar.Anothercharacteristicfeature ofGrammarisStability,whichmanifestsitself in thefact, thatlaws &categories ofGrammarexistthroughageswithoutconsiderablechanges,becauseGr.is aproduct ofmanyepochs.

2. Themainobject ofGr.as a scienceis thegrammaticalstructure oflanguage,i.e. thesystem of thelaws ofwordchanging &sentencebuilding. Therules ofGrammargovern theways inwhichwordsarejoinedtogether toexpressfeelings,emotions, etc. TheGrammar ofeachlanguageconstitutes asystem ofitsown,eachelement ofwhichstands incertain relations tootherelements.

>Thereare twotypes ofGrammar:

1.Normative.

2.Theoretical.

>All therules,according towhich,peopleconstructtheirspeecharebased onNormativeGrammar.

>NormativeGrammaris thecollection ofrules of thegivenlanguage,whichprovide thestudentswith amanual ofpracticalmastering theGrammar.Thus,NormativeGrammaris of aprescriptivecharacter.TheoreticalGrammaris thebranch oflinguistics,whichstudies theforms of thewords &their relations insentences inmoreabstractway,giving theprofounddescription ofexistinggrammaticallaws &tendencies.Everytheoreticaldescriptionpresents thestudiedparts oflanguage inanisolatedform,soas to lookinsideintotheirstructure &expose themechanisms oftheirfunctioning,i.e. themechanism of theformation ofutterances out ofwords in theprocess ofspeaking.

Theaim ofTheoreticalGrammaris topresent ascientificdescription of acertainsystem of acertainlanguage.Thus,TheoreticalGrammaris of adescriptivecharacter.

3. Thebasicunits oflanguage &speechare: thephoneme, themorpheme, theword, thesentence & thesupraphrasalunity. Thephonemeis thesmallestdistinctiveunit.Thatmeans:ifyoutake twowords ,,>season'' & ,,>reason'',youwillsee,theydiffer in1onephonemeformally.This

>phonemehelpsyou tosee, thatthese twowordshavedifferentmeanings. Themorphemeis thesmallestmeaningfulunit.E.g.:Unhappily. Thewordis thesmallestnominativeunit. Thesentenceis thesmallestcommunicationunit. Thesentenceisanutterance, thatpre-supposes theact ofspeech; thespeaker orwriter; thelistener orreader;reality,asviewedby thespeaker.Inoralspeechsentencesaremarkedbypauses;

inwrittensp.---byfullstops.Inlanguage, thesentenceisanabstractpattern & inspeech,it's aconcreteutterance.

Theword group or thewordcombination or aphraseis anamingunitlike aword.But itnamesnotseparatethings,butsome relationsbetween thethings.

>E.g.: a newcar.

Thesupraphrasalunityis afunctionalunit ofspeech,whichconsists ofmorethanonesentence,relatedsyntectically &semantically.Inoralspeechtheyaremarkedby athreeunitpause; inwrittensp.---byindentedlines.

4.Traditionally, thecourse ofGrammarisdividedinto twoparts:

1.Morphology.

2.Syntax.

>Morphologyoriginatesfrom theword ,,morpheus'' (thegod ofdreams).Theythought thegod ofdreamsgaveshape totheirchaoticalvisions insleep.Morphologydealswithforms ofwords.Itincludes:parts ofspeech &theirmorphologicalcategories.Morphologicalcategoriesarerepresented inwordforms.Itstudies thesystem offorms ofword change.E.g.: thecase & the

>number of thenoun;person,number,mood of theverb etc.Syntaxincludes thesentence & theparts of thesentence; itmakes thestudy ofways ofconnectionwords &wordcombinations in thesentences.

>Morphology &Syntaxare twoindependentparts ofGrammar andhavetheirownobjects ofstudy;they'recloselyconnected,for themorphologicalcharacteristics of thewordarerealizedthroughitssyntactical relationswithotherwords.

>On theotherhand, thesyntactical relations of thewordmayeffect themorphologicalcharacteristics ofparts ofspeech in thecourse ofdevelopment of thegrammaticalstructure of thelanguage.E.g.:substantivisation ofadjectives.

 

 

>LECTURE 2.

(>Continuation).

5. Thedistinctionsbetweenlanguage &speech,whichwerefirstintroducedbyFerdinant deSaussure,havesincebecomeone of thecornerstones ofModernLinguistics.

,,Languageis asystem''.

>It's thephonological,lexical &grammaticalsystem,whichliesat thebasis of allspeaking.It's thesourse,whicheveryspeaker &writerhas todraw onifhewants tobeunderstoodbyotherspeakers of thelanguage.Speech, on theotherhand,is themanifestation oflanguage oritspracticalusebyvariousspeakers &writers of thegivenlanguage.Thus,whatwehavebefore

>us inoral orwrittenformasmaterialforanalysisisalways aproduct ofspeech.

>Thereisnootherwayforlinguists toget tolanguagethanthroughspeech.Languagecharacterizes acertainhuman community.It'sused in the community;it'sunderstoodby all themembers of the community;soit'scalled asocialcode.Andbyitsnature,Languageissocial.Speech, on thecontrary,isindividual,butit'sbaseduponlanguagewhichexists in theminds of allspeaking community.Wecan'tseelanguage,neitherhear it.Wecanget to itonlythroughspeech.Aswe'reconcernedwithGrammaronly,wedon'thave to dealwithphonological

andlexicalparts oflanguage.Weshallonlyconcentrate on thesystem ofGrammar &itsmanifestation.Language &Speecharecloselyconnected &intermingled.Theymaycome aunity.LanguageisrealizedthroughSpeech. The life oflanguageconsists inoral &writtenintercoursewithin 2 ormorepeople.Thislinguisticintercourseismanifestedthroughconnectedcommunicationschiefly in theform ofsentences,thoughnotalwayssocomplete &well-arranged. Theobject inteachingGrammarisnotonlyrules,whichmustbeobeyedifonewants tospeak &write thelanguagecorrectly.Italsoaimsatfinding outwhatisactuallysaid &writtenby thespeakers of thelanguage.

>According toFerdinant deSaussure: ,,Languageis atreasure,formedbyway ofspeakingpractice &preserved in theminds of thepeople whobelong to acertainspeaking community." ,, Мова -- це скарб,отлагаемий у всіхчленoв даного мовного колективу."It's asystem of 3systems (>lex.,gram.,phon.),potentiallyexisting ineverymind &at thesametime, in theminds of thewholespeaking community,for,languagecan'texistwholly inoneindividual.

6.There'recertain relationswithin thelanguage.Theysay, thelanguageis asystem ofparadigmatic relations.Wemean thestructure ofvariousmeans & theclassestheyform.E.g.:boy,boys,boy's,boys'.Theyarewrittendownwith averticalway.Paradigmatic relationsarevertical.Speechis asystem ofsyntagmatic relations.They'realwayslinear (>horizontal).

>Syntagmaticchains -wemean thecombinations, thesameunitsform in theprocess ofcommunication.E.g.:voice ofphoningmachine.

>Originally, thedifferentiationbetweenparadigmatics &syntagmaticswasbased onrecognition of the twolinguisticplanes:

1. Theplane oflanguage.

2. Theplane ofspeech.

>Languageplanesarestructuredparadigmatically,speechones -syntagmatically.It'sgenerallyknown, thateverylinguisticunitends in 2types ofsystemic relationsat atime.Ifcertainunits,equal inrankarecorrelatedbymeans ofanopposition (>E.g.:long--longer--longest),wesaytheyhaveparadigmatic relations, thatareusuallyvertical &imply thechoicewhenthey'rerealized inactualspeech (>E.g.:I'mnotgoing tostayhereanylonger.), theelement thatstands inparadigmatic relations.Butthey'resubstitutable.E.g.: 1). Theway to thestationisverylong.

2).Whichis thelongestriver in the world?Opposition relationsarecalledassociative.Associativegroupsexist in theverticalway.Iflinguisticelementsappear in acontrastlinearpattern,wesaytheyhavesyntagmatic relations.Theyform asyntagneme,whichmaycomprise:

>phonemes,morphemes,words,phrases,clauses.Syntagmatic relationscanbeobservednotonlyatsyntaxlevel,they'renotassociative,butconstructive,forthey'rebased on thelinearconfrontation of thelanguageunits.Paradigmatic relations,whicharetypical oflanguage,maybe ofdifferentkinds: 1.Theymaybebased on thesimilarity of thesemanticfeatures (>synonymous &antonymousgroups).E.g.:nice,pretty... 2.Theymaybebased on thesimilarity of theformalcharacteristics oflinguisticelements.Such relationsexistbetween themembers of aparadigm,whichconsistsnot of theunits,but ofthoseparadigmaticmarkers,whichdistinguishoneform of theunitfromitsotherforms.E.g.:go,goes,willgo,hasgone.

3.At thelevelmajorsyntaxwemayalsoobservesentenceparadigms,whicharecalledtransforms.Theyareunitedby a commonmeaning.E.g.: Theworkhasbeendone,wewenthome. Theworkdone,wewenthome.After theworkwasdone,wewenthome.Syntagmatic relationsexistbetween theelementslinearlyordered.Thatisbetweenphonemes,words etc.Linearityis themainfactorforsyntagmatic relations.Standingtogether inlinearorder,linguisticelementscanmake up aunity.Butlinearityisnot theonlyground, onwhich allsyntagmatic relationsareestablished.According to thelogicalapproach, thedifferentiationismadebetween the 3types ofsyntagmatic relations:

1.Independence. 2.Dependence. 3.Interdependence.

>Thereare:combinationalsyntagmatic relations,whichrevealrelatedness ofelements &non-combinationalones.

>Combinationalsyntagmatic relationscanbesubdividedinto:

1.Collocational (>lexico-semantic).

2.Colligational (>grammatical).

>Collocational relationsarenot of agrammaticalcharacter,they're oflexicosemanticcharacter; thecollocatedelementsarelocatedtogether in thesamelineararrangement (,,tospeakfluently).

>Colligational relationsarebased on themorphological &syntacticalpeculiarities of theword (,,totellhim"; ,,tosaynothing").Non-combinational relationsarecohesive.Theymaybeanaphoric &cataphoric.

>Non-combinational relationsaretypical of thesyntax of thetext,whichmean thatneitherphrases,norsentencescanbeformed on thebasis ofsuch relations.

>They'respecificallytextual &cohesive.Theyappearbetweensentences &supraphrasalunities.Linearityisnotessentialforsuchoccasion. Thecohesive relationsappearbetween theelementswhichareusually indistantpositions. Theanaphoric relationsshow thatanelementrefers toitsantecedent in theleft-handside (>retrospective relations). Thecataphoric relationsindicate thatantecedentislocated in therighttextcontest (>prospective relations).

>E.g.: ,, Hehatedinterferenceespecially in hiswork &beyondeverythinghehatedinterferingwomen. Themorehethought of it, theangrierhebecame."

>LECTURE 3.

>THEME:Morphology.

>PLAN.

1.Aspects ofMorphology.

2. Thedefinition of themorpheme.

3. Theallo-emicprinciple.

4. Thetypes ofmorphemes.

5.Types ofword-formderivation.

1.Grammarhas twoconstituentparts:Morphology &Syntax.

>Morphologydealswithmorphologicalunits (themorpheme & theword);word-forms,whichsignifysomegeneralconceptualnotions (>grammar.meanings,grammaticalforms,grammaticalcategories).Italsostudies theparts ofspeech.Morphologyhascertainbranches:one ofthemismorpho-phonemics,whichdescribes thephonologicalrepresentation ofmeaningfulmorphemes.

>E.g.:morphophonemicvowel interchange in ">ring -rang -rung"plays adefinitepart in thesystem ofform-building. Thevowel interchange in thewords "food ->feedis ameans ofword-building.

>Anotherbranch ofMorphology -morphemicsdealswith thedescription of themorphologicalmodels of thelanguage.Inotherwords, itdescribes themorphemestructure, theways oftheirlocation in theunits of highlevel.E.g.: 2.Evencasualcomparison ofsuchwordformasdogs,boys,with the

>corresponding dog,boy,willshow that the1stsetmaybesplitinto 2grammaticallysignificantelements (<>dog>+<s>),which, on theonehand,convey themeaning, and on theother,cause thecertainagreementbetween thewords in asentence.Thus,wesay: "The dogsleeps in akennel",but "Thedogssleep in akennel. Theform "dog"can'tbedividedintofuturegrammaticallysignificantelements.Furtherdivisionmaybeonlyphonologically. Thedescribedminimalgrammaticalunitsarecalledmorphemes.Theyaredelimitedbycomparingwordformwithoneanother andbysingling out therecurrentpieces thatcomposethem. Awordmayconsist of 1 ormoremorphemes,eachmorphemethemconveys aparticularlexical orgrammaticalmeaning.

Themorpheme -is thesmallestmeaningful,furtherindivisiblerecurrentcomponent of aword or awordform.

3.If theapproachfrom thepoint ofview ofspeech,wecanobserve thefollowingphenomenon: themorphemeslikewordsmayexhibitdifferentforms in theprocess ofspeaking.Itdepends ontheirpositionwithin theword.E.g.: theregularformative of thepluralnumbermorpheme ">s"mayberepresented inspeech indifferentways.

>InlanguageInspeech

 [>s] -book

 - (>e)s[z] -boys

 [>iz] -boxes

>Allomorphsarespeechvariants ofmorphemes.

>At thebasis ofallo-emicelementslies thedivisionintolanguage andspeech. Thetermmorphemesstandsfor thewholegrammaticallyrelevantclass offorms.Theybelong tolanguage.Itisanabstractentitywhichexpressesparticulargrammaticalmeaning.Em-termsdenotegeneralizedinvariants oflanguage,characterizedby acertainfunctional status (Allo-morphesdenote theconcretemanifestation ofinvariants, of thegeneralizedunits,dependent on theregularcolligationwithotherelements of thelanguage.Invariantsareabstract. Theallo-morphs (orvariantmorphemes )like [>s], [>z], [>iz]arephonologicallypredictable,butwehavemanyexamples ofallo-morphs ,whichcan'tbeexplainedbyusage ofspeechcriteria.Thus, the Englishpluralform of theword ">ox" - ">oxen"isgrammaticallyparallel to ">dogs". ">En"isan

>irregularform of thepluralnumber.Thereareotherirregularforms: ">children", ">geese".ProfessorRobinsconsideredthem tobeallo-morphs of thepluralnumbermorphemes.According to thetradition,whichgoesback toPaniniGrammar,suchspecificformsas.........areconsideredbylinguistsashavinganyform (0form ) ofpluralnumber.

>Thereisanother group ofwordswhichhave aspecificmorphemicstructure:E.g.:"man -men", ">tooth -teeth". Thepluralformingmorphemeisrepresentednotbyanyrecurrentformativelike [>s],but aprocess ofrootvowel interchange.E.g.: [ж] - [e] etc.Wearedealingherewithinfixmorphemes.Suchwordformsarerarelysurvivals of thespecificmorphemicstructure ofOld English.Tosimplify thecomplicated

>system ofanalysis,professorIlyshV.A. andothersrefer all thespeechexhibits of thepluralnumbermorphemes to theallo-morphs of thepluralnumbermorphemes,whichgraphicallymaybedepictedasfollowing:LanguageSpeechpluralnumbermorphemes [>s], [>z], [>iz], [>ш], [>ж]--[e], [>f]--[vz],[u]--[i]. Theanalysis andclassification ofdifferentphonologicalforms inwhichmorphemesappear,both inindividual languages and in languages ingeneraliscalledMorphonology,whichis thesameasmorphophonemics.Whendiscussing thedifferentforms of the Englishpluralnumbermorphemesweapplied themorphophonologicalanalysis.

4.Thereare twocriteria inclassifyingmorphemes:

1).Positional

2).Functinal (>semantic).

>According topositionalcriterionmorphemesaredividedinto:rootmorphemes andaffixalmorphemes (>affixes,{prefixes,infixes,suffixes}).Inotherwords,rootmorphemesarecalled freemorphemes,whileaffixalareboundmorphemes. A freemorphemeisvand ?. aboundmorphemeisone, thatmustappearwithatleastoneothermorpheme,bound or free.E.g.: ">work"+"ed".Rootmorphemesareunlimited innumber.Affixesareboundmorphemes,theyare limited innumber, andmaybeexhaustedlyelisted.Somewordshavemorethanonemorpheme,theyarecompoundwords.E.g.: "bird-cherry ", ">scare-crow".In English themajority ofrootsare free.Butneverthelessthereareboundrootmorphemes.Theyare thefollowing.

>E.g.:receive,conceive

>retain,contain

>transfer,refer.

>Affixis atermdenotingrecurrentformativemorphemes,otherthanroots.From thepoint ofview offormalpresentationwedistinguish:overt [>ouvit] andcovert [>kAvit].Overtmorphemesarerepresentedexplicitly: ">retell", ">asked";covertmorphemescoincidewith0(zeromorpheme).Everymorphemeis thesmallestmeaningfulunit,thus ">ed"conveys themorpheme ofPasttense.Weshoulddifferentiateform-buildingmorphemes (thataregrammatical) andword-building

>morphemes (>theyarelexical).E.g.:movement ,outline -word-buildingmorphemesasked,asks,getting -form-buildingmorphemes 5.Form-buildingmorphemeiscalledwordchanging.Modern Englishextremelypooraccording to theword-changing,buttherearesome.

1).Affixation.

>Itis theuse ofepithets.E.g.: ">bus" - ">buses".

OnlySuffixationisused inmodern English.Prefixationwasproductive inold Englishperiod.For theformation ofperfectparticiple

2). SoundInterchange.

>Vowel interchangeConsonant interchange

3).Supplativeforms

">bad" - ">worse" - ">worst"

">go" - ">went" - ">gone"

">be", ">is", ">are", ">am" - ">was", ">were" - ">been".

>All of 1), 2), 3) -belong to thesyntacticway ofform-building.

4).Analyticalformsareparticularword-combinations,made up ofanauxiliary or anotionalword.

>LECTURE 4.

>Analyticalformsareveryproductive inmodern English

>Grammardealswithform-building .

>is.....................................................ing

>have................................................enframes

>was..................................................ed

>continuousmorphemes

Thematteris, that theanalytical ???????? (>canbeput)consist of twomeaningfulmorphemes.Analyticalmorphemesarenot freewordcombinationlike "aredrose",neitherarephraseologicalunitslike "redtape"(burocracy).Analyticalformscan'tbecomparedwithwords,theyarewordformslikesyntheticforms,performing adefinitegrammaticalfunction. Theword

1. Thedefinition of theword.

2. Thecharacteristicfeatures of theword.

3. The twoplanes of theword.

Thewordis themainobject oflexicologyaswell.Itisnoteasy togiverigorousdefinition of theword.Since itisverycomplex andmanysidedphenomenon. Theterm ">word"denotes thebasicunit of agivenlanguage,resultingfrom theassociations of aparticularmeaningwith theparticular group ofsounds,capable of theparticulargrammaticalemployment.Arnold, "The

Englishword".Thisworkingdefinition of thewordimplies that thewordissimultaneously

asemantical andgrammaticalunit.Therearemanydefinitions of theword andnone ofthemaregenerallyaccepted. Thewordisconsidered tobe theminimalpotentialsentence, theminimal freelinguisticform, theelementarycomponent of thesentence, the soundsymbol, themeaningfullyintegral andimmediatelyidentifiableunit.

Thedifficulty indefining thewordcompelsomelinguists toexclude thewordfrom thebasicunit of thelanguage. L.Bloomfieldschool in US.Thatschoollinguistsconsider themorpheme and thephoneme tobe thebasicunits oflinguisticdescription,for thephonemecanbeeasilyisolatedfrom thecontextthanks toitsminimalelementarysegmentalcharacter.Theyconsider thephoneme tobe theminimalformalsegment oflanguage and themorpheme tobe theultimate

>meaningfulsegment. Themaindrawback ofdescriptivelinguisticsis thattheyapproach thedefinition of thelinguisticunits on aformalbasis. Theotherlinguistscame to theconclusion, thatsuchunitsmustbedefinedbytakingintoconsiderationtheirformal andfunctional (>semantic)features.

2.Inactualspeechpeopleexperiencenodifficulty inseparatingonewordfromanother.Traditionally,linguistspoint outisolatebilityas themostcharacteristicfeatures of theword.Onewordcanform asentence (">Fire!", ">Thanks!",...).Anothercharacteristicfeature of thewordisits

>uninterruptibility orindivisibility.Evenifyoutakecompoundwords,suchas ">blackberry", ">blue-eyed",youwon'tbeable toinsertanotherword in themiddle ofthiscompoundword.Thirdfeatureis acertainlooseness in thesentence,i.e. thatyoumayplace theword indifferentparts of thesentence.E.g.: "Thebatflewdown."="Downflew thebat."Butstill,don'tforget, that the Englishword-orderisrigidunlike theRussianwordorder.Russianlanguageis ahighlydevelopedmorphologicalsystem. Thesetloosenessismarked inwritingby thegraphicform of thewordwithcertainspacesbetween thewords.

>Inoralspeech,everywordisseparatedfromitsneighboursbyoneunitpause.Somedifficultyispausedby theapplication of theterm ">word".Somelinguistsregardsuch group ofwordsaswork,worked,isworkingasoneword. Thewhole groupcan'tbeusedas aunit ofspeech,for theunitmustbelongboth tolanguage &speech.Of all the group,only theelement ">work"canberegardedasanobjectiveunit of thelanguage.All thegrammemearecalledlexeme. "Alexemeis a group ofwordforms,unitedby the commonlexicalmeaning,buthavingdifferentgrammaticalmeaning."

>Ifwetake a group ofwords,unitedby the commongrammaticalmeaning,weshallget agrammeme.

>E.g.:sleeps,reads,tries,fucks -Grammeme.

Anumber ofelements of thelexememayvaryfrom 1 (">must") tomany.

>E.g.: Thelexeme,representedby theword ">wright" &>THORN;contains &>THORN; 94elements,expressedby 64forms.

Thenumber ofwords in agrammemeispracticallylimitless.But thegammemehaving themeaningonlyPasttense,indicativemood,pluralnumber,notperfect,notcontinuosaspects,containsonly 1word :were .Thewordis anominative (naming )unit oflanguage .>Itenters thevocabularyasitselementarycomponentindivisibleintosmallersegments.Thewordisusedfor theformation of thesentence. Thewordis thebasicunit of thelanguage ,whichoccupies thekeyposition in thelanguage.It'suniversal initscharacter.Itiscapable ofperforminganyfunction in thelanguage :nominative,significant,communicative &pragmatic. Thefunctionalsphere of thewordisverywide.Itmayrepresent amorpheme ( freeplace ), anominativesign (desk ), Apart of aword group ( abigfire ) & asentence (Fire! ).

3. Awordis alinguisticsing. Alinguisticsignis abilateralentity,having it acontent &formalside,whichcorrelateswith theconcept &mayindirectlyreflect theobjects &phenomena ofobjectivereality (extralinguisticreality ).Not all thelinguisticsignshavereference to theouter world.Being abilaterallinguisticsign, thewordischaracterizedby 2planes :

Theplane ofcontent

Theplane ofexpression.

>bombtheplan ofexpression

theplane ofcontent

Thefirst & the secondare thedialecticalunity ofform andcontent.In theplane ofexpression, thewordhasitsmaterialrepresentation.Inoralspeech itisrepresentedacousticallyby a group ofsounds, inwrittenspeech -graphically. Theplane ofcontentincludes thelexicalmeaning ofword. Thewordexists in twodimensions,namelyas avirtualpolysemanticsign of thevocabulary, andasanactualsign,used inspeech.

Thevirtualside of thelanguagesignexists in thesphere oflanguage.Itisanunrealizedword,while theactualside of thewordbelongs to thesyntagmaticsphere ofspeech.

>LECTURE N 5.

>Theme :Grammaticalcategories.

>Grammarabstractsitselffromparticularmeanings ofwords anddealswith themostgeneralizedmeanings, thatmaybeproper tobiggroups ofwordswithdifferentlexicalmeanings.

>Inlogic, themostgeneralnotionsreflecting themostgeneralproperties ofsomephenomenaarecalledcategorialnotions ( orcategories ). Themostgeneralmeanings inLinguisticsareregularlyexpressedthrough thesystem of theparadigmaticallyorganizedwordforms andareinterpretedascategorialmeanings.

>According to thegeneralmethodologicallaw,everycontentmusthave acertainmaterialform ofexpression.Ifwetake ageneralizedmeaning ofpluralitywecanfinditsmaterialimplementation inmanywordformssuchas :streets,cars,houses, girls,studentswhichmake up agrammeme. Thegrammaticalphenomena,like theword inlexicologyarealsocharacterizedby the 2planes : theplane ofcontent (meaning ) & theplane ofform (expression ).

>Since themeaning ofpluralityisrepresented inmanywordforms,wemayinterpret itas agrammaticalmeaning & thewordforms,representing itmateriallyarecalledgrammaticalforms.

-Stheplane ofgrammaticalexpression

-pluralitytheplane ofgrammaticalmeaning

Theunity of thegrammaticalmeaningwith agrammaticalformmaytestify to theexistence of thegrammaticalcategory,but toestablishgrammaticalcategory,wemustfind asystem ofparadigmaticallycorrelatedgrammaticalforms.

>E.g.:boyscanbecorrelatedwithboy'sSinceWithin thenounwemaycomeacross thefollowingparadigm,expressing thegeneralizednotion ofnumber.

>E.g.:street -streets;ox -oxen ;foot -feet.

>Ifweanalyze theopposedformsstreet -streets,wemayobserve, thattheyaregrammaticallyopposed,for 1expressessingularity, theother -plurality. The 2opposedmeaningsareunitedby amoreabstractmeaning ofnoun.Thishighlyabstractmeaning ofnounrepresentedby theparadigmaticcorrelation of 2grammaticalformsmakes up agrammaticalcategory.Likewise,wemayestablish theexistence of thecategory oftense of theverb,but itwillberepresentedby thegrammaticalopposition of 3grammaticalforms &grammaticalmeanings.

>E.g. :ask -asked -willask

>presentpastfuture

Theopposition ofgrammaticalformsalwaysrepresents theopposition ofgrammaticalmeanings.

Thecorrelatedelements of thegrammaticaloppositionmustposses commonfeatures &differentialones,i.e.oneformmustbeunmarked,otherformsmustbemarkedby acertainmorpheme.

"Agrammaticalcategoryis aunity of ageneralizedgrammaticalmeaning,with aset ofparadigmaticallycorrelatedgrammaticalforms ".>ProfessorSmirnitsky'sPostulates of theGrammaticalCategory.Fivepostulates of theexistence ofgrammaticalcategories.Bythishedefinesgrammaticalcategory in averyconvincing &exhaustingway.

I.Anygrammaticalcategorymustberepresentedby,atleast, 2grammaticalforms.There'reno languages inwhichyoucouldfindonlyonecaseform oroneform ofnumber. Theminimalset ofparadigmaticallycorrelatedformsis 2forms.Category ofcase in Englishisrepresentedby theopposition of 2forms (Common -Possessive ),Russian - 6forms (Падежи ).

II. Nogrammaticalcategorycanberepresentedby all thewordforms of theword.Ifsomegrammaticalmeaningisinherent in all thewordforms of thegivenword,weshall dealherenotwith agrammaticalcategorybutwithlexico-grammaticalcategory.Suchis theCategory ofGender inRussian.Wecan't change thenounaccording to thecategory ofGender,i.e.masculine,feminine,neuter.Thesetmeanings ofGenderareinherent incertainnouns.Somenounsbelong tomasculinegender,other - tofeminine, andstillother -neuter.

>E.g. : будинок, вулиця, небо

III.Onewordformmaycombinedifferentgrammaticalcategories.E.g. : theform "speaks "combines 5categories (grammaticalmeanings ) -tense,3rdperson,singularnumber,indicativemood,activevoice.

IV. Nowordformcancombine 2categorialmeanings (grammaticalmeaning of thesamecategory ) of 1 and thesamecategory. Youcannotfindsingular andplural inonewordformsimultaneously.

>E.g. :boys ,boy

V.Everywordformmustrepresentatleastonecategorialform orbelong tosomegrammaticalcategory.Therearenowordformswithoutgrammaticalcategories.Inmodernlinguistics,it'sgenerallyaccepted, that agrammaticalcategoryisrepresentedbyanopposeme of,atleast, 2forms.Itfollowsfrom thetheoryworkedoutbylinguistNicolasTreubetskoyaboutbinaryopposition inLinguistics. Heapplied theopinion tophonology,butlateronhethought, thatthismethodworksverywell inotherspheres ofLinguistics.Differentparts ofspeechhavedifferent N.Ofgrammaticalcategories.

>E.g. : the Englishverbis themostdevelopedsystemfrompoint ofview ofcategories.Somethink theverbhas 6grammaticalcategories,others &>eth; 8grammaticalcategories.

 >Tense

 >Person

 >Number

 >Mood

 Voice

 >Aspect

 >Taxes

Englishnounhas 2categories (number,case ).Adjective &>eth;degree ofcomparison.

 

>LECTUREN6.

3.CharlesFriese'stheory of theclasses ofwords.

>Everylanguagecontains ______ ofwords.Whendescribingthem,weshouldanalizewhetheronewordseparately orunitethemintoclassespossessingmore orless commonfeatures.Linguistsmakeuse ofboth theapproaches. Adictionaryusuallydescribesindividualwords.Grammarmostlydealswithclases ofwords,traditionalycalledparts ofspeech. Theterm "part ofspeech "isconventional. Thewell-knownlinguistShcherbaZ.V.,ProfessorSmirnitskyprefer touselexico-grammaticalcategories ";ProfessorBlokhoperateswith theterm "grammaticalclasses ofwords ";CharlesFriescalls thesamething "positionalclasses ";ProfessorIlyish, thelinguistsHeimovich &Rogovskayaspeakabout "lexico-grammaticalclasses ofword ". Up tothisday,there'snogeneralagreementamong thegrammariansas to thenumber of theparts ofspeech,especiallycontraversialis the problem ofdelimitingparts ofspeechоn thebasis ofsome commonprinciples.

The1st tointroducewordsintoclasseswasAristotle, wholived inbetween 384 - 322B.C.Being afounder oflogicAristotleequated therelation ofideas inhumanmindwith therelation ofword inspeech andestablishedgrammaticalcategories interms oflogic. Heintroduced inGrammar thenotion of "subject " and ">predicate ".Hiscriterionfordescriminatingbetweenparts ofwas theability ofwords toexpress thepartsoflogicalproposition,i.e. thesubject, thepredicate and thecopula.

>Accordingly,Aristotleestablished 3parts ofspeech : thename, theverb and theconjunction.By the "name "hemeant thewordwhichcanperform thefunction of thesubject. The "verb "represented thepredicate.Andby theconjunctionhedenoted all thefunctionalwords,suchasprepositions,articles,conjunctions,particles.

>Aristotleteachingwaslatercontinuedbyotherscholars.Still theconfusion ofGrammarwith thecategories oflogicremained.2.In thehistory of thepart ofspeechtherehavebeendifferentcriteria,according towhich thepart ofspeechhavebeensingled out.Fortunatovconcidered theparts ofspeech tobe theformalgrammaticalclasses.Hisclassificationwaspurelymorphological. Hedivided all thewordsintochangeble andunchangeble.To thefirst grouphereferednoun,verb,adjective.

>Otherswereunchangeble.

>Shakhmatove'sclassificationfollowed thesyntacticalprinciple.Itproved tobeone-sided.

Theprinciples ,оnwhichclassificationsareusuallybasednowadays ,are 3 innumber:meaningformfunction.

Themeaning of thewords,belonging to theclass of thenoun. Theabstractmeaninghasthingness ( orsubstance ). Themeaning ofthingnessapplies to themeaning of thenoun andconstitutes themeaning of thenounaspart ofspeech.Similarly , themeaning of theverbas apart ofspeechisaction orprocess. Thegeneralmeaning of apart ofspeechisneitherlexicalnorgrammatical,but itisconnectedwithboth andwecall itlexico-grammaticalmeaning.In theclassicaltheory of thepart ofspeech asemanticfeaturewas aleadingcriteria inestablishing apart ofspeech.In thestructurallinguistics (>Ferdinand deSausur ) thesemanticprinciplewasignored (CharlesFries ).TherewereFriese'ssupporters inSovietLinguisticsaswell (Leontyev,Shapkin etc. ).Theirdelimiting theclasses ofwords.Besides, thewords ofdifferentparts ofspeecharedistinguishedthroughtheirmorphologicalfeatures,theirforms,theirmorphemes. The secondprinciple ofdelimitingparts ofspeechis _____ ofform.Grammaticalformsrepresentedgrammaticalcategories.Thus, thenounischaracterizedby thecategories ofnumber andcase; theverb -by thecategories oftense,mood,voice,aspect,person andnumber.

>Byfunctionwemean thesyntecticalproperties of acertainclass ofwords,whatpart itplays in thesentence.

Thenounisusuallyprecededbyadjective,prepositions,pronouns,articles andisfollowedby theverb.Wecall itcombinability.Themostconvenientforusis theclassification ofpart ofspeech,proposedbyKhaimovich andRogovskaya.According tothem,wesingle out acertainclass ofwords.Wemusttakeintoconsideration thefollowingprinciples ofthisclassification :Itslexical-grammaticalmeaning.

>Itsmorphologicalfeatures :

>itsform-building

>itsword-building

>Combinability.

>Itsfunction in thesentence.

>Inaccordancewiththeseprinciples, thefollowingparts ofspeecharedistinguished inModern English:

1).Nouns; 2).Adjectives; 3).Pronouns; 4).Numerals; 5).Verbs; 6).Adverbs; 7).Adlinks(thecategory of state); 8).Modalwords(perhaps, ofcourse,certainly,evidently, etc.); 9).Prepositions; 10).Conjunctions; 11).Particles;

12).Interjections; 13).Articles; 14).Responsewords.

3.CharlesFrieswas arepresentative of the AmericanDescriptiveschool. Heappliedonly 1principle indelimitingparts ofspeech - theprinciple offunction.Hisclasses ofwordscanbehardlycalledparts ofspeech. Hecallsthem ">positionalclasses" thatareestablishedby themethods ofdistribution &substitution.Hisprincipleissynthetical.According tohim, thespeakergetssygnals of commonclasses ofwordfrom theposition, thewordoccupies in thesentence. Themeaning of thewordbeingunnecessary.

>E.g.:Wogglesuggeddiggles.

Thesygnals ofstructuralmeaning(thingness oraction)arecalledbyFries ">Formalclasses". Hedoesn'tdeny theterm ">parts ofspeech".Further,heestablishes thewords, thatarecharacterizedby asimilarset ofpositions,whichenableshim torefercertainwords tothis or that commonclass.Forthispurpose,hetakes theminimalutterance( orframes).

>Class 1Cl. 3

>Frame A: Theconcertwasgood.

>Cl.2

>Frame B: Theclearkremembered thetext.

>Cl.4

>Frame З: Theteamwentthere.

>So,heestablished 4classes ofnotionalwords & 15classes offunctionalones. Heconsidered hisclassification tohighlyobjective,because itisstructural.Laterоп - 64classes offunctionalwords Hehimselfcalls theclasses - ">positionalclasses ofwords".Parts ofspeecharesubdividedfurther,they'reobjective tosub-catigo-rization.Nouns: common &proper;countable &uncountable;abstractnouns...Verbs:notional &functional;...

>LECTURE 7.

 

 


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