Реферати українською » Языковедение » Стилістичний компонент слова і його лексикографічне відображення


Реферат Стилістичний компонент слова і його лексикографічне відображення

поноси як:

розмовні, просторічні,книжн.,офиц.,офиц-делов., високетрадиционно-поетич.,народно-поетич.

l>ovely -infml,becomingrare -разг.

>granny -infml -разг.

>parky -BrE,infml -разг.


>Эмотивная конотація може у словниках указуватися з допомогою таких послід як:шутл., бран.,иронич., вшанує. тощо.

>nigger -tabooderog

>petite -apprec

>bibulous -humor orpomp


У цьому треба говорити, щоемотивная конотація входить у стилістичний компонент слова, отже, слова з цими позначками будуть стилістично маркованими.

Тут можна назвати дві основні типу послід:

  • словарні поноси (сюди ми віднесемо поноси, що вказують територіальні відмінності);

  • стилістичні поноси (що вказують стиль, емоційне ставлення, і т.д.).

  • Обидва типу послід разом відбивають стилістичний компонент.


    У наступних параграфах ми розглянемо стилістичні маркери (>маркированность стилістичного компонента) в словниках різного типу, і навіть розглянемо розмаїтість стилістичного маркірування у Словнику англійської мови та культури,Лонгман (>LDELC)


    2.StylisticNotationsIn TheDictionariesOfDifferentTypes

    >As itwasmarked in thepreviouspartStylisticcomponentisrepresented inDictionariesbymeans ofstylisticalnatations (>labels).Itwouldbeinteresting tofollow how thedictionaries ofdifferenttypestreat thestylisticnotations.

    >Tohave agoodidea ofsuch atreatmentwehaveanalysedsixdictionaries:three ofwhichareEnglish-EnglishDictionaries & theotherthreearebilingualEnglish-Russiandictionaries.

    >Stylisticnotationdepends onwhichstylisticlayer of thelanguagethis or thatwordbelongs to.Thisiswhy itisnecessary togive aview ofstylisticlayers in the EnglishLanguage and thestylistic >notations injuxtapositionwithlayersmadebyGalperin I.R. 1977); &than toanalyse how thedictionaries (>used in thediplomapaper -seeBibliography)use thestylisticnotations todenotestylisticovertone>s,stylisticcharacterization of thewordaccording to theclassificationsuggestedbyGalperin I .R.

    >Somelexicographershave aview thatstylisticnotationsareimportantfordefiningdictionariesonly & >are oflittlevalue inbilingualdictionaries,where thetranslationmustreflect thepeculiarities of theword .Butthispoint ofviewisratherquestionable,becauseexperienceprovesotherwise.

    Agreatnumber oferrors >is >madeby theuser,whoseknowledge of thelanguageisinadequate, >whenusingstylisticallycolouredwords,veryoften theusermisunderstands themotivationbehind theuse ofstylisticovertones.Itisquitenatural toaffirm, thatbothRussian and Englishusersshouldbemadeaware of >stylisticpeculiarities of >eachword, and themoredetailedsuch informationis themoreuseful thedictionarywillbe.

    Astylisticclassification of thenotationsrepresented in the E>RD >byGalperinseems toreflect to agreatextend themobility of thelexicalsystemsocharacteristic of the Englishlanguageatitspresentstage ofdevelopment

    Thevocabularyhasbeendividedinto twoba sicgroups:standard andnon-standardvocabulary . Thestandardvocabulary ofModem Englishfallsintothreelargelayers

    1. >neutralvocabulary

    2.literalvocabulary of ageneralcharacter

    3.colloquialvocabulary of ageneralcharacter

    >Allwordswith theexception of theneutralvocabularyarelabeled (>thoughas itwasconsidered in thepreviouspart thestylisticcomponentcanbehidden in thesemanticalstructure of theword, initsverymeaning).

    >Literary-bookishvocabularycanfurtherbedividedintosmallergroups: commonliteraryvocabulary (apart of Standard English),specialliterary ->bookishwords

    >Thuswemaydistinguish thefollowinggroups of thevocabulary (orlayers):

    1.Specialliterary-bookishwordswhicharelabeled in thedictionaries;

    >poeticalwords

    >poetbibl >pompemph >r>hе>t міф библ возвиш ритор archaicwords

    >obs >archolduse old-fash вустистnoncewords

    2Commonliteraryvocabulary - >fmllit

    >terms

    >td>m>k techchem >bacterialetnol спец тих

    >foreignisms (>barbarisms) >Fr >ItGermфр ит.

    3.Commoncolloquialvocabulary >inf>ml >paзг

    >Thisthreebelong to the Standard EnglishVocabulary.

    4.Specialcolloquialvocabulary (>non-literal)belong>s to the non ->standard Englishvocabulary andfallsintosubgroups:

    >Professionalisms >naut >me>d спорт.

    >Slang >sl.

    >Dialecticalwords >dial простий.

    >Jurgon >жарг злодій >жарг

    >Vulgar >вульг грубий знехтуваний >derogvulgar >offensivetaboo

    >Noncewords >fig humorjoc.

    >5.Non-standardcolloquialwordsareunstable.But itisimpossible todraw ahard-&-fast linebetween commonliteraryvocabulary &specialliterary-bookishvocabulary,because thewordstend toshiftfromonelayer to theother. Thesameistrue of the commoncolloquialvocabularywhichpenetratesinto theneutrallayer &isnotimpervious tointrusionfrom thenon-literarylayer.

    >Therearedifferentdegrees ofbookishnes>s &colloquialness: thewordsmarked >fml litmay >befoundbordering onneutralvocabulary orlyingsofarfrom theneutrallayeras tobequiteincomprehensible to theaveragereader. Thesameistrue ofwordsmar>k>ed >inf>ml >whichmayeitherpassinto theneutrallayer orlinger on thefringe of thenon-literarylayer of thevocabulary.

    Thenotationsl (>slang)ismainlyused in theEnglish-Englishdictionaries ( in English and Americandictionaries) &label thewordsaccording totheircharacter & thewaytheyfunction, іn thebilingualdictionariesthislabelisrarelyused,because ofitsill-defined &uncertaindefinition (>meaning&understanding of theterm).

    >Itisnecessary tomentionotherstylisticnotationswhichareused toidentify theemotionalmeanings of thewordsratherthanusage.Theseare:

    >емоц-усил (>emotional-intensive),ирон (>ironical),усил. (>intensive), блазень. (>jocular),презр. (>contemptuous), грубий. (>vulgar orlaw),paзг- грубий (>lowcolloquial),humor,derog.,вежл ,пестощами.

    Thewordslabeled >фр, латів,AustrE,Germ,Frareused toindicate that thewordhasnotlostitsforeignaspect or thatitsuseisgeographically limited.

    Theconclusioncomes thatbilingualaswellasexplanatorydictionariesshouldnotonlygivedefinitions ofwordsbutshouldindicatetheirusage,emotionalmeanings &geographicallimits.

    >Butat thesametime itshouldbementioned thatthoughpractically in all thedictionaries thestylisticalnotations (>labels) >arepresented >according to thelayersexisted in thelanguage, thetreatment of thestylisticnotationsby theauthors of thedictionariesdiffers.Thereisnosinglesystem oflabels thatwouldsatisfy all thedictionaries & theanalyses of thestylisticnotations in thesixdictionariesconfirm it. (>Appendix VII)

    >As itwasconsideredalready theLERDgives thestyligticalnotations (>labels)according to thestylisticclassification of the >word ->stock of the EnglishLanguage. The >ERD >doesn'tgiveanyclassification of thelabels thatareused in itAnd>ER&RED >doesn'tgiveanyclassification of thelabelseither,All theEnglish-EnglishDictionariesgive thekinds ofclassifications ofstylisticalnotationaccording to theauthor'streatmentthisstylisticalphenomena.

    >LDELCrepresents thetypes oflabelsused in it in thefollowinggroups. (>Apendix I)

    1 .Labelsshowingregion,denotingwordswhichare limited toparticularparts of the world.

    >ВrЕ.AmE >СапЕCarEIrE >AustrESafrEIndE&ParE >NZEScotE.

    >Herebelonglabels thatdenotewordsborrowedfromother languages (>barbarisms,foreignisms): .

    >FrGermJfLatSp

    1. >Labelsshowingspecialfields orsubjects,denotingwords thatareused incertainfields ofactivity orcertaintypes ofwriting ,

    >bibl —usedmainly in theBible

    >law —legalterm—used incontracts,courts oflaw

    >lit -usedmainly inliterature

    >med -medicaltermusedbydoctors,nurses etз.

    >naut -nauticalterm -usedbysailors

    >poet -usedmainly inpoetry

    tech —technicalterm -usedbyspecialists invariousfields

    >Aswecansee thelabels ofthis groupinclude commonliteraryvocabulary (>terms) &specialliteralvocabulary (Poeticalwords).

    3. >Labelsshowingsituations inwhichwordsareused,denotingwordswhichwouldonlybe >suitable incertaintypes ofsituation. і>nfml f>ml sl.

    >Theselabels dealwith commonliteraryvocabulary & commoncolloquialvocabulary, &with aparticular group ofwordswhich >is >considered tobeslang &whichisdifficult tojuxtaposewithanylayer of the EnglishLanguagebecause of theuncertaindefinition of thetermslang ,LDELCsuggests thefollowingdefinition:

    >SLANG -veryinformal,rarelyused inwriting ,usedespecially in the privatelanguage ofparticularsocialgroups.

    >Thoughwemayconsider >slangas alayer ofnonstandard (>specialcolloquialvocabulary -non-literary)close tojargonisms &vulgarisms,professionalisms.JudgingbyGalperin'spoint ofviewthistypeistypicalmore of the EnglishLanguage.

    1. >Labelsshowingtime,denotingwordswhicharenolongerused inmodem English (>though >theywillbefound inoldbooks) & >some of thewordsbeginning tobeusedlessoften.

    >old-fash -nolonger common ,usedmainlybyolderpeople

    >olduse —nolonger used

    >rare orbecomingrare —rarelyused, orbeginning tobeusedlessoften .This group oflabelsservespecialliteraryvocabulary (>mainlyarchaic)

    5 .Labelsshowingattitude

    >apprec. -shows that thespeakerlikes orapproves ofsomething

    >derog —derogatory —shows that thespeakerdislikes ordisapproves ofsomething

    >euph -euphemistic - apolite orindirectwordforsomethingunpleasant orembarrassing

    >humor —shows ajoking orironicattitude

    >pomp -shows afoolishyself-importantattitude

    >Theselabelsmainlyserve toidentifypositive ornegativeconnotation of theword, thatiswhywemaysuppose that alltheselabelscanbefoundboth in commonliterary & commoncolloquialvocabularies,aswellas in the group ofnonstandardwords.

    6.Labelsshowinglimitations onuse

    >dial — awordbelonging to thelocalspeech of aparticulararea

    >nonstandard — awordregardedas >incorrectbymosteducatedspeakers

    >taboo — averyoffensivewordwhichshouldalwaysbeavoided

    >tdmk - atrademark,whoseuseisofficiallycontrolled

    >Theselabelsservemainlyspecialcolloquialvocabulary thelabelnonstandarddiffersfrom thenotion that thelayernonstandardhas,becauseboth >dial and >taboobelong tononstandard,thoughfrom theotherhand,from theeducatedpoint ofview of thewordswithlabelstaboo &dial.mayberegardedasincorrect. Thelabeltdmkmaybetreatedas aspecialterm & >thusmaybelong to commonliteraryvocabulary.As theanalysesshows theclassification of thelabelsaccepted inthisdictionaryisnotexact andneedsmoreconsideration,though thelabelsthemselvesarequitesuitable toshowstytisticalcharacterization &stylisticalovertones.Thevariety oflabelsused inLDELCweshallconsiderfarther in thethirdpart.

    >OALEDsuggests abitdifferentgrouping of thestylisticnotations (>Appendix II)

    1.Currency,labelsdenotingwordswhicharenotused orusedbysomeolderspeakers &some >words thatarefoundmainly inbookswritten in thefirsthalf ofthiscentury: >datedarchaic.

    1. >Region,labelsdenotingwordswhichrestricted toonecountry orarea

    >Brit US Scot P.S.>AfricanAustr >NZ

    >Herebelongs >dial - thelabel thatrefers towords &meanings thatarerestricted toparticularregions of the BritishIslesnotincludingScotland &Ireland.Sothisverydictionaryuses thelabel >dial >mainlyasterritorialcharacteristic of BritishIsles,thoughstillbelonging tospecialcolloquialvocabulary.

    3.Register,labelsdenotingwordswhichmustbeusedwithparticularcarebecausetheyreflect aspecialrelatioshipbetween thespeakers or aspecialoccasion orsetting (>whichcouldvaryfromanofficialceremony to arelaxedmeetingbetweenfriends)

    ! -denoteswords ormeaningslikely tobethoughtoffencive orshocking orindecert. (>thoughnotnecessarilybyeveyone or oneveryoccasion)

    >InLDELCtheyuse thelabel

    >taboo todenotesuch a group ofwords toshowlimitations onuse.

    >sl ->thislabeldenotes a group ofwordsinventive & >oftencolourfulitemsgenerallyused in averyinformalspokencontext.Such >an >itemusuallybelongs to ororiginate in thelanguage of aparticularsocial oroccupation group (>e.g.soldiers,nurses,prisoners).

    >InLDELCthislabelhaspractically thesamemeaningbutisfound in theother group oflabelswhichdealswith thesituations andoftenthislabel >is >usedwith thelabel >taboo >infml -denotesinformalwords& >meanings, >i.e.thoseindicating aclosepersonalrelationship & >an >unofficialoccasion orgetting

    >fml -denotesformalwords &meanings ,i.e.thosechosenwhenspeaking orwriting in aserious oranofficialcontext tosomeone whoisnot aclosefriend orrelation.Theselabelsaregroupedtogetherwith thelabel >sl inLDELC.

    >rhet -rhetoricalitemsareassociatedwithwriting orspeech onserious orelevatedthemes, >especially onveryformaloccasions. theuse ofsuchwordselsewheresuggests aself-consciouslypompousspeaker orwriter.

    >Thereisnosuch alabel inLDELC,butthisverylabeljuxtaposewith thelabel >rhet inLE>RD &ERD.Thuswemayinfer thatthis group oflabelsdenote thewordsbelonging topractically all thelayers of theword-stock of the EnglishLanguage.(>AppendixIV,VI).

    4.Evaluation,labelsdenoting aparticularattitudetowards theperson,thing oractionreferred to.

    >derog - thatonedesapprovse of orscorns theperson orthingreferred to ordescribedbythose.

    >approv - theopposite ofderogatoryones,theysuggestapproval of oradmirationfor thething orpersonreferred to ordescribed.

    >offensive -words toaddress orrefer topeopleusually >with thedelibarateintention oftheirrace orreligion

    >euph - torefer tosomethingunpleasant orpainful in apleasant (>becausemoreindirect)way.

    >InLDELC thelabel >derog >isopposed to thelabel >apprec & >thereisnosuch alabelas >approv . Thelabel >offensive >isnotpresented inthisdictionary.

    >iron - thelabeldenoteswords thatareintended toconvey asenseopposite to theapparentsense.

    >fig - afigurativesense of awordis a non ->literal (>oftenmetaforical)sensewhichcanberelatedbynativespeakers toanoriginal in thepast,but itisnolongerperceived, thelabelisnot used.

    Thelabel >iron >isnotgiven inLDELC, thelabel >fig >thoughrepresented inthisdictionary,isnotconsideredas thestylisticalone.

    >joc -label,denotingwordswhichareconsidered tobefunny,whethergrim orinnocenthumorismeant.Thislabelisclose to >humor >LDELCthoughtheyarestilldifferent,

    >s>exsist -labeldenoteswords thatexpress (>sometimesuncontious)discriminatory orpatronizingattitudetowardssomeone of theoppositesex.Theyarealmostalwayswordsusedbymenabout or towomen &canbeused toexpressapproval in aman-to-mancontext

    >Thislabelisrather new andmodern and itisconnectedwith thewoman'smovement.InLDELCthislabelisabsent.

    1. >Technicalfields -words & >meanings >whicharenormalyconfined totechnicalusebotany

    >chemistry

    >architecture

    >lawphysics

    >medical art

    >anatmycinema or TV

    >grammarcomputing

    music

    Thetermscovering thetechnicalfieldsaremorewilde>lyrepresented inOALEDthan inLDELC.In >LDELCwefind thelabels >law,med,naut, tech, >denoting thetechnicalfields &belonging to the group,whichshowsspecialfields orsubjects. Thelabel tech >covers all thelabelswhicharenotrepresented inLDELC,butarewidlyused inOALED.

    >If theclassifications oflabels inLDELC & >OALEDareclose toeachothersomehow,wecan'tsay thesame ofWNCD.ThisDictionarydifferentiatethreetypes of statuslabels.Theyaretemporal,regional & >stylistic. Thestylisticlabelsareconsideredhereas asignal that aword or asense of awordisnotpart of thestandardvocabulary of English .(>Appendix III)

    1 . Thetemporallabel

    >obs -forobsolete -means thatthere іsnoevidence ofusesince 1755.

    >archaic -means that aword orsenseonce in commonuseisfound todayonlysporadically or inspecialcontexts. Thelabel >obsisnotusedneither inLDELCnor inOALED.

    >GalperinI.R.gives thefollowingdefinition of theword >obsolete -is a group ofarchaicwords thathavealreadygonecompletely out ofusebutarestillrecognizedby the English ->speaking community,

    2.Regionallabelsdenotewordswhichare limited inuse to aspecificregion of the US. Thelabelsherecorrespondloosely toone of theareasdefined in HansKurath's WordGeography of theEastern United States. Theadverbchieflypresents alabelwhen thewordhassomecurrencyoutside thespecifiedregion & adoublelabelisused toindicateconsiderablecurrency ineach of twospecificregions.

    >NewEng South chieflyNorth Southwest West MidlandNorthaest.

    >Wordscurrent in allregions of the UShavenolabels.

    Aword ormeaning limited inuse toone of theothercountries of the English ->speaking worldhasanappropriateregionallabel.Itisexplainedby thefact that theDictionaryisbasedmainly on American English.

    >chieflyScot Irish Austr SoAfr BritCanad.

    >dial -thislabelbelongs tothisvery group &indicates that thepattern ofuse of a >word or a >meaningistoocomplexforsummarylabeling, itusuallyincludesseveralregionalvarieties of American Englishor of American & British English.

    >dialBrit -indicatescurrency inseveraldialects of the Britishcommonwealth; itindicatescurrency inone ormoreprovincialdialects ofEngland.

    3.Stylisticlabels

    >sl. -isusedwithwords or >meanings thatareespeciallyappropriate incontexts ofextremeinformality, thatusuallyhave acurrencynot limited to aparticularregion orarea ofinterest, & thatarecomposedtypically ofshortenedforms orextravagant orfacetiousfigures ofspeech.

    >non-standard -isusedfor afewwords or >meanings thataredissaprovedbymanybut thathavesomecurrency inreputablecontexts.

    >substandard —isusedforthosewords or>meanings thatconform to awidespreadpattern ofusage thatdiffers inchoice ofword orformfrom that of theprestige group of the community,

    >Theselabelsgiven inWNCDdifferentiate twomaingroups of theword ->stock of the EnglishLanguage (>whichwereconsideredabove).Buttheydon'tp>oі>nt out all thepeculiarities of theword,itsstylisticalovertones.

    >InLDELC &OALEDthese twogroupsarerepresentedby anumber ofspecificlabelswhichgive amoreexactdescription of thewordspeculiarities &usage.Butat thesametimethereis "asubjectlabel orguidephrase" thatisused toindicate

    • thespecificapplication of aword or >meaning acriptology, atimepiece

    • >denotingterms (>technical >fi>eld)usage,whichisintrodusedby alightfacedash

      >usedas adirection in music

      >usuconsideredvulgar

      >usuuseddisparagingly

    • >someusagesareused indefinitions.

    >usedas aBrit,

    >titleusedesp. toexpresssuddenpain.

    >Thusaswemaysee theWNCD'Streatment ofstylisticalnotationsisratherpeculiar.Instead of thelabels,acceptedforexample inLDELC &OALED,explanaitoryphrases orguidesareused.

    >Andthoughnonstandard &substandardlabelsincludeprecticaly all thelayers of the EnglishLanguage,theydon'tcover all thestylisticpeculiarities thatmayhave aword or amea>ning.

    >Differentapproaches tostylisticnotationsinfluences agreat deal theunderstanding theexact information thatthis or thatwordcarries.

    Thecomparativeanalysesshows thatdifferentdictionariesgivedifferentlabels (insomecases) toone & thesameword.

    E, g.

    >prick - inLDELCthiswordisgivenas >taboo, inOALEDas !>sl , inWNCDasusu.consideredvulgar,LE _>RDas грубий. , inERDas грубий.

    theweakersex inLDELC ithas thelabel >pomp ., inOALED - >datedsexiest & in theotherdictionariesthisword -groupisnotmarkedat all

    >Inthiscasewemay dealwith thefacts of newtendencieswhicharenotregisteredyet in theoldereditions of thedictionaries.

    >lovelyis averyinterestingcase -іnLDELC itismarked >infml.,becomingrare, inOALED - >infmlsexist , inWNCD itisnotmarkedat all, inLERD ithas thelabel >амер ., & in theothers itisnotmarkedeither.

    >nick - >BrEinfml, -LDELC

    >BrEsl -OALED >жарг -LERD >разг . ->ERD

    >Inthiscase itisdifficulteven to >identify towhichlayer of the EnglishLanguagethiswordbelongs & inwhichsituations itispreferred.For theotherexamplessee theApplication VI.

    >Wemaymake theconclusion that itwouldbebetterif al thedictionariesagreed toone and thesamesystem ofstylisticnotationsfor thepurposenot tomislead theusers in aproperchoice of thewordMoreover , toourmind , theclassificationsuggestedbyGalperincouldbe taken orconsidered thebases of thesystem ofstylisticnotations.

    3.Classification ofstylisticnotations inLongmanDictionary of English
    >Language andCulture

    Thewordcanhavedifferentstylisticcharacteristicsrangingfrom >regionalusage to thepersonalattitude of theuser.Thatiswhy itisnatural tosuppose thatthereis agreatnumber ofwordswhichha>ve >more thatonestylisticnotations.

    Thecomparativeanalysessuggested in thepreviouspart and theproperanalyses of thestylisticnotation'svarietiesused inLDELCconfirmsuchsupposition.

    >Itwasinteresting toanalysedifferenttypes oflabels &theircombinationsused inLDELC.As itturned out awordmayhave up tofivestylisticcharacterizations thatarereflected in thenotations.E.g.

    >bum(2)AmE &AustrEderogsl >Thiswordhasfourindexesshownbymeans of thestylisticnotations,

    >bustersl,esp.>AmE.oflenderog >Therearefiveindexes of thestylisticnotation inthisword.

    >amniocentesismed —onlyoneindex.

    >Herewe dealwith thewords,whichcanbeused indifferentregions,canbelong todifferentlayers of theword-stock &havedifferentstylisticcoloursexpressing theattitude.Some of theword'scharacteris>tics >suggestchoice ofusage.

    >beholdesp-tit orold >use

    >buggeryBrEtaboo orlaw

    Takingintoconsideration allthesefacts all thelabels &theircombinationsused inLDELCwereclassifiedasfollows:

    1 .Labels ofsementico-functionalindication.

    2.Labels ofquantitativeindication ofindexes inonenotation.

    >All thelabels inLDELCwemaydevideintofourstylisticalgroups (>Appendix VIII):

    >1.Stylisticallabels (>pure)

    1. >Stylistico-functionallabels

    2. >Stylistico-sementicallabels

    3. >Stylistico-sementico-functionallabels

    >Stylisticallabelsinclude all thelabelsdenotingwordswhichare limited toparticularparts of the world orarea,as theregionalindicationisone of themicrocomponents of thestylisticcomponent of theword & >purelyshows that thewordisstylisticallymarked: >carrfgedockBrE

    >aficinadoSp

    >abortion La>t

    b>ratwurstGerm

    >accommodationsAmE

    >agentprovocateurFr

    >From thestylisticallayerspoint ofviewherewefindwordsbelonging to commonliteraryvocabulary. (foriegnisms,barbarisms)

    >Stylistico ->functionallabelsinclude thelabelsdenotingwordsaccording totheirusage &functioning.Herewemayp>oі>nt out:

    ->purelystylistico-functionallabels

    >access cardtdmk itmeans that thewordfunctions ineconomics andbusiness,

    >AC/DCsl thewordisusedby acertain group ofpeople ->mixedstylistico ->functionallabels

    >beautAmE&AustrEinfml thewordis usedboth in American &Australian English ininformalsituations, >billy-oBrEold-fashsl thewordbelongs to British English andisusedas theoutdatedslang.

    >bevydial >sl thewordis limited to aparticulararea &isthereasslang. >ampfml-tech itis atermused informalsituations.

    >Herewemayfind thewordsbelonging to all thelayers of theword-stock of the EnglishLanguage.As >beaut >belongs to common >literaryvocabulary,bevy — tospecialcolloquialnonstandard (>non-literal)vocabulary .Somewordshaving thenotation >AmEold-fash,SrEbecomingold-fashmaybereferred tospecialliteralvocabulary.Suchlabelsas >infmlbecomingrare,inflesp.BrE >belonging towordswhichcomefrom commoncolloquialvocabulary.Butthereis anumber oflabels thatmakes itdifficult toidentify towhichlayerthis or thatwordbelong>s >because thenatationsmayindicatedifferentlayers.

    >old-fashBrEinfml —asweconsidered itearlier thelabelold-fashindicatesspecialliteraryvocabulary &archaicwords inparticular, thelabelinfmlevidentlyshows commoncolloquialvocabulary.

    >BrEoid-fashsl-whereslindicatednonstandard group of theword-stock. Theexistence ofsuchlabelsconfirms thefact thattherearedifferentdegrees ofbookishness &>colloquialness.Inaccordance to thecombinations oflabels thewordsmarked,e.g. >BrEinfmIsl or >BrEold-fashsl >maybefoundbordering on commonliterary &specialcolloquialvocabulary,suchwordsmaypassintoanotherlayer, (>takingintoconsiderationI.R.Calperinpoint ofview).

    >Stylistic>o->sementicallabelsindicateemotional state,attitude of thespeakerbymeans of themarkedword, inotherwordsthislabelshows thetype ofconnotation thatistypical of theword.E.g. >bouncing (ofbabiesesp)appnec. -thiswordis usually usedabouthealthy andactivepeoplewith akind ofadministration,

    >catchpennyderog -something thatischeap &useless,butisdone tobeattractive. Thewordisusedwithnegativeconnotation &showsnotdelightfulattitudetowardssuchthings.

    >Sometimes toshowsomepeculiarities,someovertones of thesemantics of thewordsomeadditionalindexesareused:

    >anatomy - 2.body of aperson oranimal -has thelabel >oftenhumor.We know that inthisverymeaningthiswordisusedfrequentlywithhumour.

    >breechesnowusu.humor (in themeaningtrousers).Wemaysuppose thatthisworddidn'thaveanyemotionalcolourbutnowadays ithasbecomesomestylisticalconnotations.

    >activistsometimesderog -sometimesthiswordmaybeusedderogatorilydepending on thespeaker '>sattitude & >emotional state.

    >Herewerefer thelabel >taboo,asprohibition of theusageisarousedby the highemotions thatareconnectedwithannoyancewhentaboomarkedwordisused.Prohibitionisusuallyaccompaniedwith thelabels >sl or >derog, >becausetheymayexpressannoyanceaswell.

    >ball (in themeaningnonsense) >tabooslderog.Thesestylisticallymarkedwordsbelonging tothis groupwemayfindboth incolloquial &literaryvocabulary & innonstandardvocabulary,becauseemotionsarehumanbeingcharacteristicswhicharereflected inemotiveness &expressiveness of thewordsusedbypeopleindependently on thelayer.

    >Stylistico-semantico-functionallabelscombine allpossiblecharacteristics that awordmaypossess.Bothsemantical &functionalcharacteristicsarerepresented insuchstylisticnotations.Throughsuchlabelswemayconsider thewholepassport of theword (all theadditions toitsmainmeaning).

    >boon-docksAmEinfmlhumoraccept themainmeaning - aroughcountryareafarfromanytown ,wherefewpeoplelive -wesee thatthiswordbelongs to American English ,isused ininformalsituations (commoncolloquialvocabulary) & theemotions thatareexpressedbythiswordarehumorous.

    >broad 2) >AmEderogsl in themeaningwoman.

    >We know thatthiswordisused in American EnglishSlang (>nonstandard)expressingnegativederogatoryemotions.Thatiswhybeforeusingthiswordregardingforwomenoneshouldkeep inmind andconsiderwhatreactiononecancallbysuchstylisticalcolours,

    >blue-eyed-b>oyinfml >esp.BrE,usu >derog - >someonefavouritemaleperson —sowemayusethisword ininformalsituationskeeping inmind that the Britishwouldunderstandyoubetterthan American & thefact thatbyusingthiswordonecanoffendsomebody.

    >Thisstylistical group oflabelsinclude thewords ofanylayer, thatiswhy thelabelsthemselvesshouldbeexaminedthoroughlyforproperusage.

    >Thereis a group ofwords thelabels ofwhichindicate thechoice ofusage.

    >beseemfml or >olduse (tobesuitable orproperfor)th ewordisusedeither informalsituations orbyseniorcitizens,

    >appendagemed orfml ( in themeaninganarm orleg) thewordisusedeitheras aterm oras awordacceptable informalsituations,

    >bibuloushumor orpomp (>liking todrinktoomuchalcohol) thewordmayexpresshumor ormayshowfoolishself-importantattitude,Insomecaseswemayface thefact thatsomestylisticnotation'sindexessuggesting thechoice ofusagemaybeopposed toeachother:either thefunctions orsphere ofusageareopposed or theemotions thatcanbeexpressed.

    >biblethumperAmEinfmlhumor orderog (aperson whotries toattractpeople toChristianity in aloud & >unpleasantway) . Thechoice of theemotionsdepends on theemotional state of thespeaker & hisattitudetowardbiblethumpers.

    >buggeryBrtaboo orlaw (>forsodomy) thechoicedepends on thesituationwhether itis alegalterm or avulgarwordused tooffend.

    >Suchlabelsundergo theclassificationsuggested inthisparttooaccording tocharacteristicstheyexpress: >humor orpomp -stylistico-semantical group oflabels, >AmEinfmlhumor orderog - >stylistico-semantico-functional group oflabels.

    Thewidelyspread groupturned out tobestylislico-functional groupwhichcounts 68labels,thencomesstylistico-semantico-functional group -42labels,thenstylistico-semantico-functional group - 22 l>abels,purestylistical group - 19labels (>forbetterview of thelabels &theirclassification inLDELC (>Appendix IX).

    >As itwasmentionedabove astylisticallabelmayhave up tofiveindexes.Todenotesomepeculiarities ofstylisticalusagesuchindexesas >usu.,sometimes,often,esp.,now,rather,notpolitemaybeused.Weconsiderthem tobestylisticallabelstooastheyindicatetemporal orfunctionaljuxtaposition.

    Takingintoconsideration all the informationabovewemayp>oі>nt out thefollowinggroups oflabelsaccording totheirquantity ofindexesrepresented inthem.

    1 .Monolabels -oneindex. >AmEsltabooderogBrElawrareapprec

    2.Dilabels - twoindexes. >esp.AmEAnEinfmlBrEdialinfmlhumorfml orlitratherfml

    3.Tnreeindexedlabels. >SpAmEinfmlsloftenderogold-fasheuphinf>mlfmlusuderog

    4.Fourindexedlabels >Austr e>s>p >lit orolduseesp.BrE >infml,notpoliteBrEinfmlsometimesderog

    >5.Fiveindexedlabels >BrEinfml,esp.humororderogsl,esp.AmE,oflenderog.infml.esp.BrEusa.derog

    >Thus thestylisticcomponentisreflected in thedictionarybymeans ofstylisticnotationswhichmaybe ofvariouscharacteristics,manyindexedindicatingstylisticovertones of theword &possibleemotions thatcanbeexpressedbythis or thatword, thathelps toidentify thelayer of theword ->stock towhich thewordbelongs & touse thewordaccording to thesituation.


    >Conclusions

    1. >Stylisticcomponent of thewordis astylisticalstructure of thewordwhichrepresentsdifferentstylisticcharacteristics &overtones of thewordcarryingextra information of theword,itsfunctioning &usage.

    2. >Stylisticcomponent of thewordisreflected indictionariesbymeans ofstylisticnotarions (>labels).Butfor thepresentthereisnoone and thesamesystem ofstylisticnotations thatwouldsatisfy &wouldbeused in all thedictionaries ofdifferenttypes.Such asystemisnecessaryfordictionariesnot tomislead theusers of thelanguage &especiallythoseforwhom thelanguageisforeign.

    3. >Stylisticcomponentisrathercomplex &complicated,wide &peculiarwhatinfluencesit'slexicographicalreflection indictionaries.Thatiswhy thelabelssuggested indictionariesformdifferentcombinations toidentify allpossible &existingcharacteristic of theword.Thuswemaypoint out

    • >purestylisticlabels

    • >stylistico-functionallabels

    • >stylistico-semanticallabels

    • >stylistico-semantico-functionallabels


    Глава II
    Британський і американський варіанти англійської мови та їхлексикографическое свій відбиток у словнику


    Усі слова, що мають у словнику поносиAmE/BrE, ставляться відповідно до американського і британському варіантів англійської мови та є словниковими позначками. Ці поноси свідчить про територіальний ознака і приналежність слова до того що чи іншому варіанту мови, що безпосередньо віддзеркалюється в функціонуванні одиниць мови у мові і ефективності комунікації. Понад те, слова, мають маркери (>AmE/BrE), крім територіальних відмінностей можуть отримувати також функціональні, семантичні і функціонально- семантичні ознаки. Наявність додаткових характеристик всередині варіанта розширює стилістичний компонент слова, обмежуючи чи розширюючи можливості функціонування слова у мові.

    Отже, ми зіштовхнулися звнутриязиковойвариантностью англійської, стилістичні особливості якої у стилістиці особливий інтерес і є нинішній момент мало вивченими іпроанализированними.

    >Внутриязиковая варіантність з'являється у результаті співіснування нового з колишнім у розвитку мови, що

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