Реферат The concept of morality

>PLAN

1. Theconcept ofmorality,itsconstituents

2.Primitiveforms ofmorality

3.Morality andtradition

>Conclusion


 

1. Thenotion ofmorality,itsconstituents

>Etymologically theterm ">morality"comes to theLatinword «>mos» (>set «>mores»),whichindicates the ">character".Anothermeaning of theword - thelaw,rule,order.In contemporaryphilosophicalliterature onmoralethicscourse, aspecialform ofsocialconsciousness and akind of public relations,one of themainways toregulatehumanactions insocietybymeans ofrules.

>Moralityarises andevolvesbased on theneeds ofsociety toregulate thebehavior ofpeople indifferentareas oftheirlives.Moralityisone of themethodsavailable topeopleunderstanding thecomplexprocesses ofsocial life. Aroot of the problemis toregulate relationsbetweenmorality andinterests ofindividual andsociety.

>Moralideals,principles andrules ofanyrepresentationsfrompeopleaboutjustice,humanity,good, publicgoods, etc. Thebehavior ofpeople whomeettheserepresentationsappearmoral,opposite -immoral.Inotherwords, themoral that, in theopinion ofpeople in theinterests ofsociety andindividuals.Thatbrings thegreatestbenefits.Naturally,thesepresentationvariedfromcentury tocentury, andbesides,theyweredifferent invariouslayers andgroups.Hencethereismorality in thespecificity ofdifferentprofessions.All of thegrounds tosay thatmoralityhashistoric,socialclass andprofessionalnature.

>Broadfield ofmorality,butneverthelessrichness ofhuman relationscanbereduced to relations:

•individual andsociety;

•individual andcollective;

• thestaff and the community;

•staff andstaff;

• man and man;

•Rights toherself.

>Thus, thedecision ofquestions ofmoralityentitlednotonlycollectivebutalsoindividualconsciousness:moralauthority ofsomeonedepends on howcorrectlyheunderstands thegeneralmoralprinciples andideals ofsociety andreflected intheirhistoricalnecessity.Objectivity andexactlygroundsallowself-identity,as hisownconsciousness, toaccept andimplementtechnicalrequirements,makedecisions,developrules of lifeforthemselves andevaluatewhathappens.Here,mouth problem ratiowill andnecessity. Thecorrectdetermination of thegeneralgrounds ofmoralitydoesnotmeananunequivocalwithdrawal of hisspecificmoralnorms orprinciples, anddirectpassage of theindividual ">historicaltrend".moralactivityincludesnotonlyperformance,butcreativity and newnorms andprinciples,beingmore allmeetsmodernideals andways oftheirimplementation.

>Aimlesssearchfor theexactdetermination of theessence ofmorality, ittriedunsuccessfully todoeven inantiquity. Youcanonlymark abasicframework ofconcepts that ">make"this science:

•moralactivity -anessentialcomponent ofmorality,whichmanifestsitself indeeds.Act, orset ofbehaviorscharacterizingindividualbehaviorgivesanidea ofitstruemorality.Therefore,onlyactivities andrealization ofmoralprinciples andrulesallowindividualright torecognition inhertruemoralculture.Deed inturncontainsthreecomponents:

1.Motive -morallyconsciousmotivation todo oract thesamemotivation - aset ofmotives,whichmeans theadvantage ofcertainmoralvalues in thechoice of theindividualcommittinganact.Forexample ...Twofriends,employeesoxygenplant, sat in theevaporator.Standinghotsummer.Onesaid: ">Good toostudytysya out!".Anotherquicklyturned theshutter,resulting inwhathesaidwasfrozenalive thatbrokepairs ofoxygen ...

>Itwouldseem that inthiscasenodirectintentions tocommitanoffense and thecriminalresultheredoesnotmatch themotives andgoals ofaction.Here themotivationisseeminglymadebyinadequateactions.Itactsratherbecalledbezmotyvnymbut ">zhornutistreasons", hissituationalconditionalitydoesnotmean hisabsence.Thisimpulsiveactionwasnotcriminalpurpose andpropermotive,butthisworkedstereotypicalwillingness toactcarelessly,thoughtlessly,under theinfluence ofsomeisolatedrepresentations ...

2. Theresult -material orspiritualimplications ofactions thathavespecifiedvalues.

3.Ratingsurrounding,both theact anditsoutcome andmotive.Ratingdeedsproduced incorrelationwithitssocialsignificance:itsvaluefor aparticularperson,persons, group,society, etc.

>So,noteveryactthisaction,butactionismotivatedbysubjective, thatisforsomeonesoaudacious andvalue to aspecified ratio (>estimate).Actcanbemoral,immoral orpozamoralnym,but,nevertheless, thatirreparable.Forexample, ...raise theunit toattackmorally,butif theattackwilllead toirrational andsenselessdeath, thatthisshouldnotonlyimmoralbutcriminal.

•Moral (>moral)relationships -relationships instarostascomepeopledoingthings.Moral relationsaresubjectivedialectics (>motivation,interests,desires) andobjective (>norms,ideals,goodluck)withwhichaccountedconsidered, andforindividuals whohaveanimperativecharacter.Entering themoralrelationship,peopleimpose onthemselvesdefinedmoralobligations andat thesametimeimpose amorallaw.

•moralconsciousness -involvescognition,knowledge,motivation andvolitionaldecisiveinfluence onmoral andethicalactivityrelationships.Italsoincludes:moralidentity,moral self-image.Moralconsciousnessalwaysaxiological,becauseeach ofitselement, itconcludeswith theassessmentpositionproducedby thesystem ofvalues andbased on acertainset ofmoralnorms,patterns,principles,traditions andideals.Moralconsciousnessas asystem ofassessmentswithsigns orplus orminus,reflecting thereality in the light ofapproval andcondemnation,bycontrastgood andevil, andrelatedactivities,intent -thesecategories inquestions ofethicsareparamount.Aristotle,for thefirsttime in Europeanethicsfullyconsidered theconcept of ">intention"isunderstoodas thereasonfor hisvirtue andconsciouslyopposed,distinguishedfrom thewill andrepresentation (">NykomahovaEthics,Book III,r.4, 5, 6, 7). Theintentionisnotright thatcannotbedone, anddirected that the man in power, itconcerns ameans toachieve thegoal (>youcannotsay:I'mgoing tobeblessed)asopposed to thewill of all thatcan dealwith theimpossible (desireimmortality,forexample) andsend that out ofour power (>desirewins aparticularcompetitor in therace), thepurposes of man.Kernelideas ofAristotle,according towhich theconcerns ofintention and thewill - theobjectives ofhumanactivities,is thatcontentgoing tobe,as arule, theimplementation ofgoals, real, taken inunitywith themeans toachievethem. Theintentionisalsonotpresent. Thefirstisalwayspracticallyoriented,yields in the worldjustwhatpeople in power, the secondextends to all: theeverlasting, and theimpossible and thefirstdifferencesbetweengood andevil, second -validity andfalsity and thefirstindicationis toact,sayswhat topursue andwhat toavoid,what todowith thesubject, the secondexamineswhat thesubjectitself and how itisuseful and thefirstpraisewhen itagreeswithdebt, second -when itistruly;firstconcernswhatisknown, the second thatwedonot know.Inaddition,completing hiscomparativedescription ofAristotle, the bestintentions and the bestrepresentationnotfound in thesamepeople.Own asignificantsign ofintentAristotleseesis that itisprecededbypre-selection,weighingmotivesunderwhichhefirstunderstands thedifferentrole ofreason, thatmotivates andpleasures: ">Itissomething thatiselected toothermostly.

 

2.Primitiveforms ofmorality

>moralitysociety

Themainsocialfunction ofmorality,whichdetermines thespecificity ofsocialbeing - afeature of theregulation ofhumanbehavior andinterpersonalrelationships.

Nosocietycouldbe amotivated andbe achaoticclash ofselfishinterestsblind sat,nonormalized andnotregulated.Thishypotheticalsituation ofzeroorderingsociety-tion of life Britishphilosopher T.Hobbes (1588-1679),describedas «>bellum omnium contraomnes» («thewar of allagainst all" -Lat.).Intolerance ofsuch a state ofsocietymakespeople,according toHobbes,UCfinsbetween akind ofagreement, thesocialcontract that, on thebasis ofreciprocity,limiting theright ofeveryindividual,thusmustensureimplementation ofthesebasesamongthem,especially theright to life anditsprotection (>whichimplies theemergence of state andlaw).

>However,before theidea ofHobbessocialcontractthinkersputforwardlateantiquity, in the XVIcentury.wefind it in theNetherlandssociologist andlawyer G.Greece (1583-1645),later itdevelopedsuchprominentthinkersasJ.Locke,Spinoza,Kant,J.J.Rus з.Thisideareflected thebelief in theimmanence (>internalprytamannosti)social life ofpeople ofcertainforms ofitslegalregulation.

>Infact,wesee that in theinitialteam ofhumanmuas itzoomedpast thegeneralbiologicaldeterminants ofbehavior -instinctstudityforspeciesconservation,maternalinstinct -begins tobranch out andapprovedby aproperregulatorysystem ofregulation of lifeissuch thatoneway oranotherappeal to thehumanawarenessbridge.Buyingsometimes intheirspecificmanifestationsalreadyquitesensiblenature,theseinitialbehavioralnormsarehoweverexamples ofzhorstokostisuchintegrity andcomprehensiveness ofpressure on theindividual whospoke in ahumanlikewehardlyfind in all thesubsequenthistory ofmankind.Innotmakingtheserulessyncretic (>nerozchlenovano tofutureseparation)combinedinfluence ofmagic,custom,myth, and that inlatertimeswascalled themorality -not invain in theliteraturesometimesrefers to ">mononormy"initialzhyttyeustroyu.

Astrikingexample ofsuch ">mononormis inproducsociety on the familysystem ofprohibition -taboo ortabuatsiya (>withPolynesian). Thefact thatmodernresearchers knowabout thephenomenon oftaboo thatgivesreason tosee itcomplicated,but theentirecomplexrepresentations,based on - acategoricalprohibition ofcertainactions andintentionsaimedat the ">inviolable"objects thatexcite thesense ofmortalterrorthreat - andyetreverence,charm,ifnotzvablyvost.

>Asfaraswecanjudge,tabooswereassociatedprimarilywith theprohibition ofincest -sexual relationsbetweenrelatives, and thecult oftotem - thesacredanimal,whosenameisnowcalledhimself a family.With thedevelopment ofprimitivemankindappearmore and newkinds oftaboos,ifonly tobringtheminto the list,hewouldhaveconsisted ofonethousandprohibitions.Among themostimportantgroups oftaboocancite thefollowing:fireprotection andhousing,protection of laboroperations,protection ofimplements andweapons,protection ofimportantpeople -leaders,priests,protection ofweakermembers of thetribe -women,children, theelderly,protectionfromhazardsassociatedwithtouching thecorpse,restrictions onconsumption ofcertainfoods;bantion andlimitationsrelated tocertainimportantdocuments andpersonal lifephases (>initiation,sexualintercourse,childbirth,marriage,monthly, etc..)protection ofproperty andso on.

>Wecanassume that theentireset ofsimilartaboos ingeneralsatisfy theneed toprotectimportantelements of lifeactivity of thedescent group.Whileexplainingtionorigin ofparticularformstabuatsiyisometimesextremelydifficult.Thus, acriticalissue in thehistory of theoriginalremains the problem ofmoralitytabuyuvannyaincest.Stimulatingtionvalues of thecategoricalprohibitionisnodoubt -thanks toadvances inunderstandingherrelatives allsystemlinksachievementsinggreaterharmony andcooperationwithin thetribal community,finally,overallgrowthisagainstthisbackdrop ofhumanconsciousnessspeakforthemselves.Butwhywas thebanintroducedherself?Hypotheses ofthistherearemany,butdoubtlessamongthemyet.If,say, out ofideasabout thedangers ofbloodmixingforgenerations, howcould it knowabout theoriginalpeopleforwhom amysterylinkbetweenintercourse andchildbirth?Currentlytherearepsychoanalytic,semiotic,economicticeconomic (>as awomanfightingfor labor), andotherexplanationforthistruly aturningpoint in thehistory ofhumanmorality.Perhaps,however, thatherewearefacedwith thelimitatwhich thesocial andculturalhistory ofmoralsinterferewith themoregeneralanthropological andexistentialfactors.

>Inanycase in themaking ofspecificforms ofmoralregulationappearsveryimportantmechanism ofactiontabuatsiynoyiban.On theonehand, thebanhas onhumanscomprehensive andinevitableway. Z.Freud in hisbook ">Totem andTaboo"describes thecasewhenlightermaoriyskoholeaderonceled to thedeaths ofseveralpeoplefrom histribe.Governorlost hislighter, and themenfoundher andbegan touse it.Whentheyfound out who itislighter (and allthingstabooleader),hedied ofhorror.Therearemanysimilarexamples.Yes, ahealthypersoncoulddiesuddenlydied,helearned that theleaderhadbreakfast food, etc..

>On theotherhand, itisessentialimmanentnature ofpunishmentforviolationstabuatsiynoyiban. Apersoncannotpunishanyone,withoutanyoutsideinterference,evenwhentherearenowitnesses ofits ">horrible"act,she,so tospeak,an openyetsyaforpunishment:depressed,seriouslyill,sometimes,aswesee, anddies.Inthispeculiarattribute of themechanism of theban,tabooeasilyrecognize aprototypeforfutureautonomousmorality.

>Ofcourse,puremorality inearlysocietiesdidnotexist,astherewasnopure art,purephilosophy orevenreligionpure,purespirituality ingeneral -ruledmagicalsyncretism.Yeting all ofhumanhistorywas theoriginal postaccumulationbehavior ofelements andattributeswhichsubsequentlyformeddugqualitativelyspecificphenomenon ofmorality:carefor theelderly,children andwomen, akind ofdiscipline of labor andcooperation, aculture ofhuman relations, theestablishedsystemeducation,includingmoral.Paleolinhvistykashows that in theancientstonemuage (>Palaeolithic)peoplehaveanidea of thegood,duty,conscience, andsomeotherbasicmobyspectralcategory.Thus, in thelanguagetasmaniytsiv -people wholivedunder thePaleolithic in thepreviouscentury,untilhewascut offcolonizers -eventhough thatlanguagehadonly afewwordsalreadypresentterms ">good", ">bearcat", ">shame" andothers.

>Significant ">peredmoralni"moments (or,moreprecisely,those thatincludesomemoralcontent,whichgraduallyvyokremlyuyetsya)peculiar,aswehaveseen, and thedevelopment ofprimitiveforms ofbehaviorregulationhumanrights.

>However,withitsownmoralsas aspecialsocialphenomenon anditsinherentforms ofnormativeregulation,webegin to dealwithlater,when dekladayetsyaoriginalsyncretism ofhumanexistence and, inparticular, theancient ">mononorma"givesway todiferentsiyovanymarranging andregulatoryinfluences ofcivilizationisborn.Itiscomdevelopment ofeconomy andtrade,consolidation of newsocial andeconomicprinciples thatblewshutingtraditionalrodopleminnyhgroupsformownsocial status andclass, theemergence stateowes,strengthening andcatalysingtheseprocesses -youneed in theformation ofqualitativelydifferentways toregulatehuman life,notonlyrelated totribal ortribalcenter.

>Whensuch aneedarises (>forsouthern Europe itismainly thelateNeolithic andBronzeAge - the end of III -Beginning andmillenniumBCE.) -In the life ofhumansocietysignificantchangesoccur. Theconcentration ofreligious andmagicalfunctions ofcertainitems ofsocialtime andspaceliberatesspacefor thedeployment ofrational-secularoperationus-tion ofhumanbehavior.Inthis lastareathere andconfirms theright,ie thesystem ofsocialnorms and relations, theobservance ofwhichisprovidedby the power andauthority of the state.Aswe knowfromhistory, thefirstsystems oflawweformedusuallyby theselection andapproval of thetraditional,spontaneouslyformedcustoms (>customarylaw),mandatoryreligion andhiynyhtions.Subsequently,however, in theprocess oflawareincreasinglybeginning tomanifestitsownspecificquality,customsystemsigns.Alongwith thelawstands,acquiresspecificfeatures andmoral.

>Asistypicaljustformoralastion ofspecificforms ofregulation ofhumanbehavior?

>Insearch ofanswers tothisquestionourattentionprimarily on theexistence in acivilizedsociety of twofundamentallydifferentforms ofnormativeregulation,whichcomplementeachother -regulation andinstitutionalpozainstytutsiynoyi.

 

3.Morality andtradition

>Recall thatmorality andlawisrepresented,fromspectively,pozainstytutsiynu andinstitutionalforms ofpulregulation ofhumanbehavior, inthiswaytheyarehere anddiscussed.However,asinstitutionalregulationisnotonlylegal - infact,itsattypicalexamplecanbeanyvalidauthority insocietytion, thatsomehow therights andobligations ofitsmembers - andmoralityarenot theonlypozainstytutsiynoyiregulationmechanism.Essential toclarify thespecifics ofmoralityas asocialphenomenonarises inthisregardcompared to thesamepozainstytutsiynoyithisform ofregulation ofhumanbehavior,ascustom.

>Likemorality,customsalsomadespontaneous in the life ofconcretehumancommunities. Combutwith therightmorals andtraditionsmostdeeplyrooted in theoriginalsyncretism inancienthistory. (>Wecannotsay theoriginallaw,but theprimitivecustoms -entirely.)Thiscustom,although itisnotalwaysrealized,is themostprofound andmass-ingform ofregulation andourpresent life - inmostcases,speakingwithpeople,sellingtheirgoals, etc.,weact,butnotspecialponderingoverthis,justas itzaveproved,asusualforus andthosearoundus.Thisapplies tobothdaily andholidays,celebrations andmore. Onlyfacedwithextraordinarysituations andproblems, allsorts ofsurprises,wehavemoretreatfrom theordinary -customary - and lookfornontrivialgaugeroutes,including in thefield ofmorally.

>Giventhis,vporyadkovuyuchecustomvalue in public lifereallydifficult tooverestimate -aswellas theimportance oftraditions,habitsestablishedspoke in ahumanspeech andthoughtsomeone,unitingourSegtionwith thehistoricalexperience ofmankind.DestructionUscustomssupposed tobeable,as therichsocial andculturalhistory ofdisasterstour of the XXcentury.,-Apainfulprocess thatleads toprimitivization andexpansion ofrelationships,generatingchaos andconfusion. Nowonder todaysoacute therevival ofcustomarystructures ofhumanexistence -is,so tospeak, thebread ofmorality,withoutwhich itis -even to thehighestoperationalitsmanifestations -cannotexist.

>However,payingtribute to thecustoms,wewillweigh all thesame and thefundamentaldifference ofmorality.If theattempt toformulatehappenmost commoncustom of theprincipleitself,he,asoutlined in theliterature,wouldrequire:doso,asdo all!Followingcustom, and Iactasdiadysimilarcircumstancesmygrand-grandfathers,asaremyneighbors andfriends. Youpravdannyam orjustification ofanyactthereis acertainprecedent andformed hisexpectations:whatshouldbeentirelydue to thefact thatwas andis that theusual,routine.

>Incontrast, themoralitybased onsomeotherprinciples of mansheneeds:doso,asmust alldo!So,beforeyoudosomething, Iveryfirstaskourselvesnot howbehavedlike toplace onmyneighbor ormygreat-grandfather, and ofthings inthissituationrequiresme tomyduty.Thus,morality incomparisonwithcustomTipovaintroduces theprincipledifferencebetweensuschym andproper,betweenwhatwas andis andwhat itshouldbe.Precedentfor itisnolonger thefinaljustification ofanyact orHeldingfrom it.AsnotedcreatorethicskatehorychfootimperativeKant,evenif Iknew thehistory ofmankindnoonehasyetfulfilleditsdutyproperly, itwouldnotrelievemefrom thenecessityNostaitsownduty - todo ,do ithere andnow.After all,thismoralneednotdependlive onempirical relations andprecedents that Icansee thepastbutonly on theinternalrequirements of themandatoryareasassuch.

>Itfollows that thewholesheer, allmoralhumanbeingcannotacceptbecause of theveryfact ofitsavailabilityonly in the world.Moralpoint ofviewcomesfrom thefact that theveryexistence andevenrepeatsomethingover thecenturiesisnotevidence of thatso itshouldbe,anoldinjustice,evenosvyaChenmanner ofjusticehavenotyetbecomewith thepropermoralpositionbeconvictedaswellas theinjusticescommittedyesterday or today.With thatsaid itfollows aradicaldifference andcomplementarity ofcustom andmorality in public life. The Power ofcustom - apowerfulfoundation thatcements,strengthens theexistingsystem ofhumanexistence andrelationships,providessustainability initsfunctioning.Asformorality, itcanstrengthen therole ofthiscustom,if,based onitsowncriteria,considers the статус-квоjustified andappropriate.Ifnot -Revolutionizingmoralityappearsas afactor thatopposes theconservativehabit and toovercome it.

>Onwhosesideistruth inthisancientcustom ofdispute andmorals?

>Ifnotconfinednarrowlytraditionalist or,conversely,moralisticpoint ofview, andtry to lookatwoolcausewider -wehave torecognizewhathappens indifferentways.Inmanyspecificcases,right, ofcourse,hasmorals, andhercondemnation ofcertainpracticesshouldbeconsideredasevidence oftheirhistoricalconclusion.Thus, incondemning thebloodtion ofrevenge,humansacrifice,slaverymoral, ofcourse,wasright,thisconfirmed therightness ofits nexthumandevelopment.Andnowweoftenprofitfrom theexperiencesjunctionwith themoralcondemnation of theancientcustoms and therecentpast, therationaleissad thatcanbeusedno.

>However, itisobvious that thecustoms andemergedyutnotscratch. Nomatter howarchaic orabsurdnymytheysometimesseem,oneshouldconsider thattheyhaveaccumulated lifeexperience andwisdom ofmanygenerations - theexperience andwisdom thatisnotalways openbriefly,notveryinsightful look of man,immersed intheirownurgentproblems of today .

>Therefore, in themoralisticcritique ofcertaincustoms,whichisage-oldtraditions,weshould, ingeneral,becarefulnot torush,astheysay,togetherwithwater andvyhlyupuvatychild.Condemning,say, thecustomsassociatedwith theaffirmation ofinequalityarticles,inhumanhumiliation ofwomen,is itworth it,asweoftensee today,makethiscampaignequalizing up to theabsurdlimit,whichlostitselfcultivatedforcenturiesantropokulturnyyimage offemininity - andhencepeoplefeelless andlessincentives todeveloptheirownmen ofvirtue?

>Unlike thefieldrighthere,betweentradition andmorality,clear,predeterminedcriteriafordifferentiationbe, ofcourse,cannot -solve allourability tocomprehendeachparticularcase,ourtact andsense ofproportion,whichisgenscrapsome of themostimportant theculturalformalitiescapableperson.


 

>Conclusion

>One of theconditions ofmoralchoiceis thevariability ofbehavior,ie thepresence of arange ofobjectiveopportunity tocompare andgivepreference tocertainactions, andconsciouslydetermine themeaning of his life, thatis asubjectiveability tochoose.

>Thus,during thedetailedconsideration ofthisissueisbecomingmoredifficult,becausenotfullyelucidated:Whatis theopportunity andability tochoose andwhichcharactertheyare -objective orsubjective.Depending on theanswer tothisquestionisdetermined and theposition of thephilosopher,thinkerabouthumannature anditsplace in the world

>Inphilosophical andethicalworks ofhumannaturedealtprimarilywith theposition ofspecificproperties -mentalactivity,whichwasperceivedas aprimarycharacteristic of acertain man, and man -as awinner in hisexpression.HumanMorality inthiscaseisintegrallyconnectedwithhermind andisperceivedassomethingnatural, andfreedom -as theexistingproperty ofeveryhumanindividual.

Individualhuman lifebears theimprint ofsome ">zadanosti:certainethnicenvironment,itscustoms andtraditions of theera inwhichhelives,culturalvalues,evenbeforeanydataselectionfromherchildhood.

>Thus, in theeverydaypractice of apersonfacing aspecific, realexistingnaturalconditions of life,social andeconomicfactors, theexistingculture.

>Theseconditions inmanyrespectsdetermine therange ofinterests,aspirations andneeds ofpeople, anumber ofpossibilities tochoose thepersondirectly andconcretemeaning toitsactivities, thestandards andcriteriabywhich itassessestheirbehavior,their lifepath.


Схожі реферати:

Навігація