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Development of technology of crude smoked sausage

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>Annotation

Thetheme ofcourseworkis >Development of thetechnologicalprocess ofdrysmokedsausage.In thecourseworktechnology ofdrysausage,patent andanalyticalreviewsarepresented. Thenecessaryrawmaterialsforproduction ofthistype ofsausage,aswellas theproduction linearedescribed. Theformula andcalculatedmaterialbalanceareshown. TheCorseworkcarried outat 40pages,includes10table, 2charts and 5figures.


>Contents

>Introduction

>Normativereferences

>Definitions,abbreviations

>1.Analiticalpart

>2.Tehnologicalpart

2.1Characteristics ofsausages

2.2Characteristics ofraw andauxiliarymaterials

2.3Methods ofproduction ofsausage

3. Technology ofproduction ofdrysausageenzymatic

3.1Technologicalchart ofdryfermentedsausage.

3.2Technological lineforcrudesmokedsausageproduction

3.3 Technologyintroductions ofprotein of software500

3.4Grocerycalculationdryenzymaticsausages

4Requirementsfor thefinishedproduct.

4.1Requirementsforqualitysausage

4.2Faults anddefects ofsausages

5Packaging,labeling,storage andtransportation ofmeatproducts

6Technochemical control

7. Equipment

8Safety

>Conclusion..Appendix A


>Normativereferences

>Incourseworkreference onfollowdocumentsareused:

>GOST 9958-81Meats andmeatproducts.Methods ofbacteriologicalanalysis

>GOST 9957-73Sausage andporkproducts,lamb andbeef.Methodsfordetermination ofsodiumchloride

>GOST 9792-73Sausage andporkproducts,mutton,beef andotherkinds ofslaughteredanimals andbirds.Acceptancerules andsamplingmethods

>GOST 16290-86sausagescooked andsmoked.Specifications

>GOST 53587-2009Cookedsausagemade ofhorsemeat.

>GOST 16131-86crudesmokedsausages.Specifications

>GOST 12600-67smokedsausagessuppliedforexport.

>GOST 16351-86smokedsausages.

>GOST 53591-2009smokedsausagesmade ofhorsemeat.

>GOST 23231-90sausages andcookedmeatproducts.Method ofdetermining theresidualactivity ofacidphosphatase

>GOST 23670-79Cookedsausage,hotdogs andsausages,meatloaves.

>GOST 52479-2005Sausagescookedmeatfor baby food. Generalspecifications

>GOST 52196-2003Sausagescooked.Specifications

>GOST 23231-90sausages andcookedmeatproducts.Method ofdetermining theresidualactivity ofacidphosphatase

>GOST 16351-86smokedsausages

>GOST 12297-66Cannedmeat.SausageStuffingamateur.


>Reduction

>Inthisworkreductionswereused

>Etc

>Fig -figure

>Min -minute

>Mm -millimeter

>m /sec meter in second

>cm -centimeter

DegreesCelsius

>Kg -kilogram

% -percent

G gram


>Terms

>Inthiscoresworkfollowtermsaregiven:

>Chilledmeatissubjected tospecialthermaltreatment in thecoolingchamber,is agoodrawmaterialforproduction ofsausage.

>Sausageproductfrom thesausagemeat in theshell,cookeduntilready touse.

>Frozenmeat -meatissubjected tofreezing andthawingrequires,isicecream.

>Smokedsausages -are theproducts in theshells,made ofmincedmeat,bacon,salt,spices, andsubjected to thedraft,smoked anddried.

>Cognac - thealcoholicbeveragewith aspecialflavor andtaste,madefromethylalcohol,long-aged inoakbarrels, andsugarsyrup.

>Draughtsausage -sausagesticks toextractheattreatment inlimbofor afixedtimefor thesealmeatmaturation anddrying of theshell.

>Drying ofsausages -removal ofmoisturefrom thesausageatcertainparameters ofair togivethemstrengthduringstorage.

>Mincedmeat -meat,shredded ontopwith aholediameter of thelattices2-5mm.

>Meatismulticomponenttype ofrawmaterialisrepresentedcombination ofmuscle,fat,connective andbonetissue (orwithoutits).

>Clearing ofcarcasses.Sanitary-veterinarybrand,bloodcoagulum,bloodstains anddiaphragmarecutfromcarcasses andhalf-carcasses.Pollutionsareremovedbyhumidifyingcloth.Hairisburnedbyblowlamp.

>Butchering.Carcasses andhalf-carcassesaredivided onanatomicparts:shoulder,hock,thorax,couplingpart andneck.Butcheringiscarried out onpendantways,hangers ortables.Fatisremovedatpork.

>Chisellingisseparationmeatfrombones.

>Trimming.Attrimming ofbeef andmuttonbyknifetendons,cartilage,largebloodvessels,nerveplexuses,connective-fibermat,subcutaneousfat andlargeaccumulations ofintramuscularfatareremoved.Atporkintramuscularfatisnotremoved.

>Cutting.Meatiscut onpiecesby mass50-70g andatpackingintolargetaresiscuttill 200 g.Forcuttingmeat 2consistentlymounteddiskmeatcuttersareused:firstmeatcuttercutsmeat onstrips, second -strip onpieces.


>Introduction

>Expansion ofassortment on thebasis ofrationaluse ofrawmaterials -is today themaintask ofindustrialactivity ofanysausageshop.

>Nowcertainliftingmeatconversion theindustriesincludingsausagemanufacture, thatdevelop inseveraldirectionsisobserved:

1.Use of newkinds ofrawmaterials and foodadditives;

2.Expansion ofassortment ofproduction;

3.Development of the newequipment andtechnologies [1].

>Meat andmeatproductsareone of themajorcomponents of a food of theperson, itis asource ofproteins and thevitaminsnecessaryfornormaldevelopment ofanorganism.At alongabsence in adiet ofmeat andmeatproducts,othersources ofanimalproteinalbuminousinsufficiencywhichnegativelyinfluences healthcandevelop:function isbroken, theexchange offats andvitamins,decreasesresistibility toinfectious and todiseases.Meatisone of thebasicsources ofanimalfats in a food of theperson.Sausageproducts andsmokedproductsoccupy thebigrelativedensity in apopulation food, andtheirmanufactureisone of themajor in themeatindustry.

>Due toenvironmentaldegradation,increasingstress onhumanrights andotherunfavorablefactors, theimportancenowis the problem ofimproving thequality,safety andmedical-preventiveproperties ofmeatproducts.

>One of themainchoice of foodadditives andingredients thatareincluded in theformulations ofmeatproductsis theuse ofsubstances ofnaturalorigin,affectingnotonly thefunctional andtechnologicalproperties ofrawmaterials,but highbiological andphysiologicalactivity inhumans. Theintroduction ofdietaryfiber infoodsreduces therisk ofdiseasessuchasdiverticulosis,coloncancer,obesity,diabetes,cardiovasculardisease,thrombosis, and themaintenance ofnormalintestinalmicrofloracanbeachievedthrough theuse ofsubstances thatstimulate thedevelopment ofbifidbacteria in thehumangut.Inrecentyears,havebeenwidelyusednatural foodnatural foodcolors.

>Inourcountry theset ofnames ofsausageproducts offollowingkindsisdeveloped:stuffed,boiledsausages,sausages,sausages,meatcorn, ,bloodsausages,pastes,jellies,semi-smoked,boiled-smoked,crudesmoked andcrudedriedsausages.Theseareproducts on thebasis ofmincemeatwithsalt,spices andadditives, in acover orwithout it andsubjected tothermalprocessing toreadinessfor theuse.Distinctionsbetweenthemarecausedby akind andproperties ofrawmaterials, astructurecompounding,character andfeatures of thetechnologicalprocessing,specificexternalproperties andproductstructure.Thus inmostcases,majorimportanceproperties ofrawmaterialshave.

>Crudesmokedsausagesareproducts in thecovers,prepared ofmincemeat, thesaltedporkfat,salt,spices andsubjected adeposit, tosmoking anddrying.Thesesausages themostproofatstoragePreparationfor theuse in foodiscarried outat theexpense of alongfermentation ofmeatat allstages ofmanufacture ofsausages.Thesesausagesdiffer adenseconsistence,pleasantaroma andsharpsaltishtaste.Thanks toconsiderabledehydrationtheycanbestoredlongtime.Bymanufacturecrudesmokedsausagesgreatattentiongive toquality ofrawmaterials,carefultrimmingmeatassausagesdonotsubject tothermalprocessing. Theattention toage ofananimal,carefulness ofcooling, aparity ofbeef andpork,especiallyporkfatasitsexcessivequantitymakesadverseimpact onconnectingability offorcemeatispaid.

>Sausageproductsshouldbe,certainlygood-quality.Andunsuitablefor theuse in foodproducts withobvioussignsnotfreshforcemeat orrancid offat, aproduct inwhichharmfulmicroorganisms orlarvae ofinsects, andalsoextraneous,hazardous to healthinclusions (>slices ofglass, metal etc.arefound out)aresubstandard andcontainingnitrites in thequantityexceedingestablishednorms.In thepresence ofsomedefects itisnotauthorised tolet out in atradingnetwork andsuitable in foodsausageproducts. Thedefectsreducing foodvalueconcerntheirnumber (>extraneoussmack and asmell) andstoragesinfluencingduration (thebigemptiness in theforcemeat, theburstcover,stronglydeformed andbrokenlongloafs)

Iwill stop on amethod ofintroduction ofprotein >PP500Ż in sausages.Usingcorrecttechnology itispossible toimproveprofitability ofmanufacture,raisingexitsatsimultaneousdecrease inexpenses, andalso toachievefavorableinfluence on astructure of areadyproduct,improvinglinkagebetweenfat andmeatparticlesatproteinapplication >Purin500Ż.


1Analyticalpart

Themodernword ">sausage" (>sausage)comesfrom theLatinword ">salsus",whichmeanssalty.Probably, inancienttimes,thistermhas abroadermeaning tomeannotonlyhotdogs andsausages inoursubmission,but all thesalty, orjustcannedmeat.Then itwasnotpossible tokeep themeatcold, andcookingsausages (>cooked andsmoked), itwas agoodway tosave it.

>Centurieswentby, andpeoplearemore andmoreperfected theprocess ofmakingsausage.So,depending on thegeographiclocation indifferentparts of the worldtherearevariousrecipes ofsausage,whichis best,suitedfor aparticularclimate.For thecoolregions ofnorthern Europe,where therawmeatcanbestoredfor alongtimewithoutspecialcooling,hasbeenmoresuitablerawsausage.Inorder tokeep themeat in thewarmermonths,smokingwasused.Probably, andthereweresummersausage.

>Start ofproduction ofsausagescanbeattributed to theMiddleAges,whentheybeganmanufacturing incentral Europe (>Germany).

>Overtime,sausagesareone of themaintypes ofmeatproductsproduced inKazakhstan andby 1990,productiontotaled 3.4milliontons.Transition tomarket relationshasled to asharp reduction intheirproduction,dueprimarily toincreasedpricesformeat and change thedemand.In 1993,production ofsausageproducts inKazakhstanfellby 17%.According to theforecastswilldecrease thelevel ofmeatsales initspureform.Willincreaseproduction ofsemi-finishedproducts:frankfurters,sausagesfordiet and infantnutrition,long-termstorage ofsausages:smoked,boiled-smoked,smoked,whilereducing theproduction ofcookedsausage [2].

>Sausagesarepopularamongconsumersdue totheir highquality andnutritionalvalue.Development of newkinds ofrawmaterials,primarilydue to theuseeatsoyprotein (>flour,concentrate,isolate),playing therole ofemulators andstabilizersmeat,improvingitsstructure andreplacedbyanequivalentportion ofmeat.Inaddition,soyproteinshave apositiveeffect onhuman health,reducing therisk ofcardiovasculardisease andcancermorbidity,increasebodyresistance [3].

>Inaddition tosupplements,replacements ofanimalproteinincreasingapplication inmeatproductsfinds theuse ofbiologicallyactivesubstances.According toBogatyrev [4],using ofdietarysupplements,is aconcentrate ofnatural oridentical tonaturalsubstances. Themostcommonlyusedsupplements ofegg,milk andsoyproteins,polyunsaturatedfattyacids,phospholipids, andvitamins. Theapplication,whichisaneffectiveform ofprevention andcomprehensivetreatment of commonchronicdiseases -obesity,atherosclerosis,badquality,immunodeficientstates.

>Anotherpromisingdirection - thecreation andusefor theproduction ofmeatproducts ofbiologicallyactivesubstances on thebasis ofmetabolicproducts ofmicroorganisms.Suchpreparationsfor theRoubaix-pulpknownas thestarterculture andarewidelyused insausageproduction.Foruse in themeatindustry, a newbacterialpreparation ofPB-MP, thecurrentbasis ofwhichislacticacidbacteria. Hehas highacidifyingability andproduceslargeamount ofcarbonyl andfourcarboncompounds thatcancreatedistinctivetaste andaroma ofmeatproduct,hasantibioticactivityagainstcoliform. Thepresence ofdenitrifyingmicroorganisms in theproductleads to theformation of therequirednumber ofnitrozopigmentsstabilizing thecolor ofmeatproducts,whiledrysausageripeningperiodbereduced to 17-19days. [5].

>One of theurgentproblems ofsausageproductionis toincrease theshelf life ofsausages.Tothis end,stuffing theaddition ofspeciallydesignedsubstances -preservatives,representing theoriginalcomposition of themixture ofdifferent foodacids thatmaybeused in themeatindustry.Theyinhibit thegrowth ofundesirablemicroorganismswithrespect to,prevent theformation oftoxins andareeasy touse [6].

>Anotherdirection ofextending theshelf lifesausagesis todevelop newpackagingtechnologies thatenablemorereliablethan thetraditional, toprotectfinishedproductsfrom the change inorganolepticproperties,moistureloss andbacterialspoilage.Inmostdatameet therequirements ofmulti-shrinkablepolyamide andpolivinildihloridnyeenvelope toensurepreservation ofqualityindicators-governmentalsausageswithsnoring andallowcon-ditsterilization [10].

>Inrecentyearstherehasbeenanactivedevelopment ofmeatproductsfor baby food,recipeswhichshouldbetailored to thespecificmetabolic,physiological andbiochemicalprocesses of thechild'sbody andincludequantitativerestrictions on thenutritionalcontentkeyelements ofvitamins andminerals. TheCo-utilization of highqualityrawmeat incombinationwith thecomponents ofplant anddairyorigin andediblehull ofproviding highnutritive andbiologicalvalue ofthesesausages [7].

>Furtherdevelopment of thesausageproductionwillbeassociatedwithtechnical andtechnologicalre-equipment ofenterprises,with theuse of thelatest.Mostforeignequipment andtechnology andtheirown know-how,enabling toproduceproductswith highconsumerqualities of theindividual.

>Formostsuccessfulbusinessestheyneedpersistent advertising ofitsproducts,marketexpansion ofitssales, openingbranches inotherregions,creatingitsownnetwork ofshops.Significantlyalsoadhere to theprinciple ofmodernmarketing:not todefendfromcompetitors andlearnfromthem, tofightfor theconsumer,choosing themaintool tocombatproductquality .

>Sausage,aswellasothermeatproducts,are themainsource ofprotein,sotheirnutritionalvalueshouldbedefinedas thetotalcontent ofprotein, and thenumber ofessentialproteins. Theamount offatshouldbewithin thelimitsunderwhichimproves thequalityindicators ofsausages (>taste,texture),asexcessivelylargeamounts offataffects thetaste of theproducts andtheirdigestibility.Incompilingrecipessausagesshouldalsobeconsideredcontent in thefinishedproducts ofessentialpolyunsaturatedfattyacids,macro-andmicronutrients,vitamins anddigestiblebridge.

>Invention ofboiledsausageobject of thepresentinventionis toimproveproductqualitybyimprovingitstaste andorganolepticproperties andincreaseproductyield. The problemissolvedby thefact that in acertainmode ofproduction ofcookedsausage. Theessence of theproduct.Methoddiffers in that thesalting ofpigheads,drumsticks, orgubernaculumsiscarried outwith abrineconcentration of 10%saltcontent andsodiumnitritewas 0.075%.

>Anotherdifferenceis that themainbeefisprepared in acutterwith a ratio ofporktrimmedbold,trimmedporkfat andsoyproteinhydrated 4,5:4,5:1,respectively,while in thestuffingaddedphosphatecontainingcomplexmixture ofspices,salt,nitrite orcookbook in theamount of 2kg and asolution ofsodiumnitrite inanamount of 7.5 gper 100kg ofrawmaterial andcutteringwirefirstbyadding 50%ice of thetotalcontributedamountuntil themeattemperature10oC,thenadd theremaining 50% of theicecutteruntil atemperatureminced5oC.

Thetechnicalresult in theimplementation of themethodisachieveddue to thefact thatwhencookinggroundmeatused incertainratios of all of thefollowingcomponents:beeftendonremovedbold,porktendonremovedfat andsoyproteinhydrated.Clearly, inthiscaseweuserawmeat ofbetterqualitycompared to theprototype.Inthiscase,soyproteinhydrated inalmostequal innutritionalvalue andnutritionalvalue ofanimalproteins,due to thepresence ofessentialaminoacids,similar incomposition to theaminoacids ofhigh-qualityanimalproteins.

>Inventedsmokedsausagewithuse of amultifunctionaladditive (>premix)with thefollowingcomposition:essentialoils andoleoresins ofaromaticplants,polysaccharides,ascorbicacid and oritssalts and oreritrobovayaacid and oritssalt,flavorenhancer andflavorglyukonodelta ->lactone.Additionally, inobtainingmeatadd 20-30%trimmedrawmeat,aswellashydratedvegetableprotein.Inventionprovides adrysausage on afast tracktechnologythrough theuse ofmultifunctionaladditive (>premixes). Theadditiveallowsyou to control theripeningprocessrawsausages,acceleratethem andget aqualityfinishedproductis 10-21dayswith highorganolepticquality,colorstability andlongshelf life. (2168304,A23L1/317).

>Multifunctionaladditive (>premix)for thedrysausageis acomplexmulticomponentmixture ofspeciallyselectedtaste,aroma andfunctionalingredients (>rawmeat pHregulators,boostersmaturation, etc.).

>Known foodadditivefor theproduction ofdrysausage thatcontainswine andalcoholcomposition andcarbohydratecomponents -glucose andmaltodextrinat acertain ratio ofingredients (>RU 2115341 1, A 23 L 1 / 314, 07/20/1998).
>Invention ofboiledsausagewith theaddition ofapplepowder,whichimproves theorganoleptic andphysic-chemicalquality ofproducts anddietaryproperties, toimprove thenutritional andbiologicalvalue (aset ofessentialaminoacids,pectin anddietaryfiber,carotene,vitamins andmicro-andmacro)production inincrease theshelf life ofcookedsausages,improvingprofitability andexpanding therange ofcookedmeats, tocreate aproduct of healthcaredestinationforcompetitiveproducts, toobtain theproductatcostprice[9].


2Technologicalpart

2.1Characteristics ofsausages

>Crudesmokedsausageissometimescalledsolidsmoked.Meatforsmokedsausagesbeforefilling theshell,aswellasforcookedsausages,isnotsubjected tothermaltreatment.Afterfilling, thesausageshallbestored in acoolplace 7-10days andthensmokedat atemperature of 25-350C.Continuation ofsmokingsuchrawmeatleads to aratherstiffsausage (>whichiswhy itis the secondtitle).Aftersmoking, theobtaineddriedsausagesticks.Forpreparation ofdrysausageusingpremiumgradebeef,leanpork.Oftenaddspices andwine (>brandy).On theoutershell ofsausagesmayappear adrywhitepatches ofmold orsalt,whichisnot asign ofdepravitysausage.Crudesmokedsausageproducehigher and1stgrades.

>Sausagespremium.Theseinclude thefollowingitems ofsausage:pork,Soviet,sausage,Moskovskaya,Stolichnaya,Poland,Special,Sudzhuk,Neva,beef,Tambov, etc.Sausage,1stclassisanamateursausage.Crudesmokedsausageconsistentlyenjoyedgooddemand, and todaythereis ahugesellingtheirchoice,givingyou theability topick aproductforeverytaste [10].

>For themanufacture ofsausagesused thefollowingmaterials:meat,fattymaterials,blood,eggs andeggproducts,flourproducts,mainlystarch,proteinstabilizer, theingredientsforsalting (>salt,sugar,sodiumnitrite, andsodiumaskarbinat),spices,onion,garlic,brandy andMadeira,sausagecasings.Alsousedsmokingdrugs, anddressing andpackingmaterials.

Themanufacturingprocess ofeachtype ofsausagehasitsowncharacteristics.However,operationstrainingmaterialforsausageproductionare common tomostsausages.Sort ofmeatbased on theseparation ofmeattrimmed ofvarietiesdepending on thecontent ofconnective andfattytissue.


2.2Characteristics ofraw andauxiliarymaterials

>Rawmaterialsused insausageproduction.Meatsproducedfrommeat of allkinds oflivestock andpoultry,processedoffal1st and2ndcategory,protein-containingpreparations ofanimal orplantorigin,animal andvegetablefats,eggs andeggproducts ofwheatflour,starch,cereals [11].

>Rawmeat.For theproduction ofdrysausageusingbeeffromadultcattle,pork,refrigerated anddefrostedstates,baconspinal. The bestrawmaterialis themeatfrom theback andshoulderparts ofcarcasses ofbullsaged 5-7years andfrom theshoulderadultpigs (2-3years).Chilledrawmaterialsshouldbenomorethan2-3-dayexposure,frozen -nomorethan 3monthsstorage.

>Meatisconsidered tobeneutralized,ifinside apiece of thetemperaturereachedisnotbelow 800 .

>Blood.Bloodproteins (>serum)equivalentmeatproteins (95 - 97%) andalmostcompletelyabsorbed.Inaddition,bloodcontainscarbohydrates,fattysubstances,minerals,vitamins,enzymes,hormones andotherbiologicallyactivesubstancesnecessaryfornormalfunctioning of thebody.

>Amino-acidcomposition of 100 g ofmeatprotein,blood ormilkcanalmostentirely toprovide thedailyneeds in allessentialaminoacidsexceptisoleucine.Wholebloodisused tomakebloodsausage,brawn,canned food.

>Spices.Spicesareadded tosausageproducts togivethem aspecificaroma andtaste.Spicesare theproducts ofplantorigin.Theirdistinctivefeature - thecontent ofessentialoils.Forspicesinclude:Pepper (black,white,fragrant,red),nutmeg,cardamom,coriander,cinnamon,cumin,pistachios,bayleaf andsomeothers.

>Inpractice,oftenuse amixture ofspices,spiceextracts in theform ofthreetypes ofoils. Anegativefeature of theextracts -greatervolatility.

>Garlic andonions.Bulbousplantscontainingessentialoilsareused tocreate abouquet ofsmell andtaste ofsausage.Theseinclude:freshgarlic,garlic,canned,onion, andtheirpowderdrydried.

>Cognac.Cognac - thealcoholicbeveragewith aspecialbouquet andflavor,preparedfromethylalcohol,long-aged inoakbarrels, andsugarsyrup.

>Saltedingredients.Theseinclude:salt,sodiumnitrite,ascorbicacid,askarbinatsodium andsugar.Forsaltingmeat in theproduction ofsausageingredientsused incrystallineform or in theform ofsaturatedsolutions ofthesesalts.

Thecasingshave tobewelldegreased,cleaned ofcontents andfiberlayers,showednopathologicalchanges.Theirlitter-commutebytype andsize (>diameter).

Shellforsummersausages.Naturalcasingsusedfor theproduction ofsmokedsausage,shouldbedegreased,aspreserved in thebowels offatduringstorage orduringripeningcanbecomerancid,whichwillnaturallyhave anegativeimpact onflavor,taste andcolor of thesausage mass.

>Saltedgutsprior toprocessingmustbewellrinsed inwarmwater andsoakforseveralhours inenoughcoldwater toavoid theformation of alayer ofsalt on thesurface of theshell.Notrecommendedfor theproduction ofsmokedsausage tousefreshintestine,justafter theslaughter ofanimals.Naturalcasingsforsmokedsausagesaftertreatmentshouldbrineforatleastoneweek.

>Use ofnaturalcasings in theproduction ofsausageiscurrently limiteddue to theepidemics ofmadcowdisease.Thisprimarilyconcerns theuse ofbovine andovineintestines.

>For theproduction ofdrysausage,alongwithnatural andartificialcanbeusedby theshell,whichareoffered indifferentvariants.Inaddition toadequatestrengthartificialshellshouldhavegoodshrink andadhesionproperties andprovideuniform andsufficientwateryieldingcapacity ofrawsausage.

>Preparation ofrawmaterials.Preparation ofrawmaterialsincludestrimming, andsalting ofmeat.

>Trimmingbyhand inareaswithairtemperature to 12 .Toprevent theoccurrence ofstainedsections in thefinishedproductfrom themeatcutsarecutmarks.Whendeboningcannotallow theaccumulation ofprocessedrawmaterials,ascutsurface ofmuscletissueis agoodbreedinggroundfor thedevelopment ofmicroflora.Incase ofdetection in theprocess ofboningabnormaltissueareas (>hemorrhages,abscesses,tumors, etc.)disclosed to thephysicianresponsibleforsausageproduction.Ifthesechangesarenotrelated to theoveralldefeat of thecarcasscharacteristic ofanyanimaldisease,after theremoval ofaffectedareas and thecorrespondingstripping themeatused insausageproduction.

>Quality controlboningmeatisrecommended to 3timespershift: 2hoursafter thestart ofsession,for 1 tolunchtime and in the last 2 h ofoperation.
>In theprocesstrimmingbeef,lamb andporkarecutintopiecesweighing 300 ...600g,porkribsintopiecesweighing 300 ...400g,fat on thespinalstripes15CH30sm.Beforegrinding,rawfat (>porkfat,bacon,bacon,fat,raw)shouldbecooled to 2 2 , orfreeze up to -2 1 .

2.3Methods ofproduction ofsausages

>Smokedsausagecanbeproduced in twoways

Thefirstmethod

>Salting ofrawmaterials.Trimmedbeef,mutton andpork,salt inlumps of 400-600 g,byaddingforevery100kg ofmeat 3.5kg ofsalt.Reducing theamount ofsalt and 3kgper 100kg ofmeat.

>Saltedmeatiskeptat atemperature of 2-4 for 5-7days invariouscapacities (>vats,barrels, etc.).For the bestmeatdehydrationAmbassadorproduce onslopingshelves or incontainerswithperforatedbottoms.

>Preparation ofmeat.Stored in thesaltingcuts ofbeef,lamb,lean andfatporkisground ontopwith ameshdiameter 2 ...3mm,boldpieces ofpork -with amaximumdiameter of 6mm,brisket,fat andcrudefat -atshpigorezkahdifferentdesigns,cutter orotherequipmentintopieces thesizespecifiedforeachtype ofsausage.

>Shreddedbeef,lamb andleanporkmixed in amixerfor 5 ... 7minwith theaddition ofspices,garlic,brandy orMadeira andsodiumnitrite.Thensuccessivelyaddedinto themixer thatisbold,fatpork,bacon,baconfat orraw, andcontinue tostir 3minutes.Sodiumnitriteisused inanamount of 10 g in a 5%solution,evenlydistributing it to thestuffing.

>Ifyouuseunsaltedbacon,baconfat orrawat thesametimeaddtablesaltat therate of 3.5%byweight ofunsaltedrawmaterials.Mixingiscarried out toobtain ahomogeneousmincewithevenlydistributed in itpieces ofbacon,lard,fat,bold, andfattypork. Thetotalduration ofmixing 8 ... 10min.

>Stuffingkept incontainerswith alayerthickness ofnotmorethan 25cmfor 24 hat 2 2 toreachmaturity.

>Fillingshellswithmincedmeat.Conducthydraulicsyringes.Tablesforknittingcrudesmokedsausagesshouldbedry.Beforeextrudedcasings toremovemoisturehung in arefrigerated roomat 12-24 h, ordisplay inpots,trays andothercontainerswithperforatedbottoms.Itisrecommended toapply thetarsusdiameter of 100mmlessthan thediameter of theshell. Shellshouldbefilledtightly,sealing thestuffingespeciallywhentying the free end of theshell.On thedensity offilling theshelldepends on thequality of thefinishedproduct.Toshelldrysausagemeet thefollowingrequirements: agoodpermeability, theability toshrink andseal.

>Forstuffingmeatprimarilyusenaturalcasings, thelack ofwhichis thattheycontainfatgivestaste ofrancidity.Allowedrelease ofsausages inanartificialmembranewithoutdressings.Inthiscase itisobligatory on theapplication of theloavesprintedsigns orlabelingwith thename of thesausage.Batontied upwithstring orthread,causingtrademarks. Air,caught in astuffingforspraying,wasremovedbypiercing theshell.

>Sediment.Tiedstickshung onsticks andframes,aresubjected tosedimentfor 5 ...7sutat 3 1 andrelativehumidity of 87 3%. Thefirstday thedistancebetween thesticks andBatonmustbeatleast 10cm, andthenstickshift.Velocity ofair in theprocess ofprecipitation of 0.1m /sec.Withincreasedaircirculationisexcessiveshrinkage of theshell andform aseallayer on thesurface of theloaf,obstructingwithsmoking anddrying theremoval ofmoisturefromdeeplayers of theloaf.Exclusion ofrainfall in themanufacture ofdrysausageled to thedeterioration oftaste,mincedporosity on thecut,warpingsticks and theappearance ofdarkrings in theshell.Practitionersareguidedby thefollowingindicators ofreadinesssausagesatupsetting:Dryshell,tightlyfittingsausage,whenyouarenotpressed,mincedbecomeselastic, thecut ofbrightredcolor, theindividualfibers ofmeatdoesnotreachfor aknife.

>Smoking.From atechnologicalpoint ofview,smokingis aprocess ofsoakingfoodssmokingsubstancessmokefromincompletecombustion ofwood. Theresultinggas-vapormixturecontainsbothnutrients (>phenols andaldehydes)aswellasharmfulfractions oforganic andinorganiccompounds. Valuethemdepends on thetemperature ofcombustion ofwood,method ofproducingsmoke,itsdensity anddilutionrate ofcoldair.

>Smokedsausagesbecomeacute,pleasanttaste andsmell,darkred andglossysurface.As aresult of penetrationinto theproduct ofsomefactions ofsmoke,especiallyphenols andorganicacidswith highbactericidal andbacteriostaticaction,suppresses thedevelopment ofputrefactivemicrofloraincreases theshelf life ofsausages.

>Distinguishbetweencold andhotsmokedsausages. Coldsmokingiscarried outat18-220Sfor 2-3days.Itprovides thegreatestdurability ofproductsduringstorage.Subjected tocold-smokedsummersausage.Duration ofsmoking,depending ontemperature andtype ofsmokedsausageisfrom 1 to 48 h.

>Afterprecipitationsmokedsausage in thecellswith thesmokefrom thesawdust ofsolidhardwood (>beech,oak,alder, etc.)within 2 ... 3daysat 20 2 ,relativehumidity of 77 3% anditsspeed 0.2 ... 0.5m /sec.

Theprocess ofsmokingshouldcontinuallymonitor toavoidtemper -compactedsurfacelayer.

>Ifsmokingisundergoingconsiderableloss ofmoisture - in thesummersausages incold-smokedfor 4days,theyare 12-14%.Thereisevidence thatprolongedstorage ofproductssmokehas anegativeeffect onfats.Heavilysmokedsausage,depending onconditionsbecomepungenttaste oftar andphenol,whichincreasedwithfurtherstorage.Apparently,thiscauses a change in thesubstancescontained insmoke. Found thatwhensmokingsmokedsausagesreducedflexibility andabilitymoisturecontainingmince;significantlyreducedstickinessmeat,whichindicates a change indenaturation ofproteins in theprocess ofsmoking.

>Drying.Thisoperationcompletes thetechnologicalcycle ofdrysausage.As aresult,lowering the massfraction ofmoisture andincreasing the massfraction ofsalt andsmokingmaterialsincreases thestability ofmeatproducts to theaction ofputrefactivemicroorganisms.Inaddition, theconcentration ofdrynutrients in thefinishedproduct,improving theconditionsforitsstorage andtransportation.
>Sausage,dried 5 ... 7days adryerat 13 2 ,relativehumidity of 82 3% anditsvelocity of 0.1m /s.dried onhatrack 25-30daysdepending on thediameter of theshell.Furtherdryingpassfor 20 ... 23daysat 11 1 ,relativehumidity of 76 2% andairvelocity of 0.05 ... 0.1m /sec. Thetotaldryingtime of 25 ...30sutdepending on thediameter of theshell;touristsausages 5 ... 8days.

>Whencookingsausages insyntheticproteincoatdryingtimeincreasesby 10 - 15dayscomparedwith thesausage innaturalcasing.Whendryingisnotpermitted thestrongaircurrents.

>Foruniformity ofdryingshouldbepickedloaves of thesamediameter. Airconditioners andotherdevicesshouldprovide in thedryingchambers to thedesiredtemperature andhumidity.

>Sausageisdried indryingchambersundercertaintemperature andhumidity inwhich thecapacity ofeachchambermustmeet thedailyperformance of theshop,buttheirnumber - thenumber ofdays ofdrying.Tomaintain theregime ofdryingusingairconditioners. Hang orframe onwhichhangsausages,place inseveralstagesdepending on theheight of the room.Betweenlongloafsleavegapsforaircirculation.


1 - thelowerchamberforair, 2 - TopBreather, 3 -Fan, 4, 7 -additionalheaters, 5 - aconduitforirrigationwithwarmwater, 6 -chamberairsupply, 8 Evaporator

>Fig. 2.Drying.Deviceforproduction ofcrudesmokedsausage

>Packaging,labeling,transportation andstorage.Bulktransportation ofmeatproductsleads to adecrease intheirquality,strainloaves,longloading ofvehicles.Forstorage andtransportation ofmeatproductsarepackaged inclean,tightboxes orbarrels ofdrywood andkept in adry anddarkplace orrefrigerator.Bestoredsausages,pepperedwithdrysawdust.Tarashouldhave thecoverbedry,clean and free ofmold andunwantedodors.

Thetemperature ofsmokedsausagesbeforeplacing incontainersshouldbe 0-1200C.Ineachbox orbarrelpackedsausagesonename.

>Whenmarkingpackagingindicates theproduct, themanufacturer,date ofmanufacture,standard.

>Transportedsausages allmodes oftransport inaccordancewith therules ofcargotransportation.

>Length ofstorage ofrawsausages:attemperatures of 12-150C and arelativehumidity of 75-78% -lessthan 4months,at atemperature of -2 to -40C -nomorethan 4months,at atemperature of -7 to -90C -nomorethan 9months.

The secondway

>On thethread-mechanizedlinesrecommendedmanufacturinggrainy,Maikop, Moscow,Nevsky,sausage,Soviet, thecapital ofsausage andtouristsausagesaccording toFig. 1.

>Preparation ofrawmaterials.Trimmedbeef,porkchunks andstrips ofbaconwerefrozen inaluminumbasins or ontrayslayerthicknessnotexceeding10cm in thefreezer to atemperature in thethickness of apiece orblock of -3 2 for 8 ... 12hours or on theunitfor lightfreezingmeat andbaconfollowedby thealignment of thetemperature in thechamber-drivearound theblock to thevolume of 2 1 .

>Frozenblockstrimmedbeef andporkbeforeprocessingiswarmed to -3 ... -2 .Itisrecommended topre-crush onmachinesforgrindingmeatblocksintopieces ofthickness 20 ... 50mm.

>Preparation ofmeat.Carried out on thecutter,designedforcrushingfrozenmeat.Aftercrushinglargechunks ofbeef orleanpork inabout 0.5 ... 1.0min,tablesalt,spices andbrandy orMadeira,10g ofsodiumnitriteas a 5%solution,bold orfattypork andcontinue tocutter 0.5 ... 1.0min.Thenadd thelard orbacon andgroundstill 0.5 ... 1.5min. Thetotalduration ofgrinding 1.5 ...3.5min.

End ofcutteringdeterminedbydrawingmince; itisrelativelyuniform insizeslices ofbacon,bacon orporkfatshouldbeevenlydistributed.Temperature ofmeataftercuttering -2 1 . TheloadfactorCutter 0.4 ... 0.5.

>Allowedforcookingmeatuse amixturecomprisingnotlessthan 50% of thefrostbittenflesh andnomorethan 50% ofsaltedmeat.Inthiscase, thecutterinitiallychargedwithfirstfrostbittenshreddedbeef andpork,thenseasoned insaltingmeatpieces.

Theprocessisthenperformedasdescribedabove (>Fig. 1).

>Fillingshellswithmincedmeat.Groundcutterwithhandling thedevice or thecartisfedinto avacuumpress.After theappropriateseals andvacuumisfilledwithmincedmeatslidinghollowcylindercapacity of 60dm3.Cylinderswithmincedspecialmechanismestablishedby asyringedevice thatproduces afillingshellswithmincedmeat. Theprocess ofdressingstickssimilar to amethod.

>Heattreatment.Includessediment,smoking anddrying.Theseprocessesaresimilar to thefirstmethod.

>Packaging,labeling andstorage. Summersausagepacked inwood,plastics andaluminummulti-boxes,crates orcontainersmade ofothermaterials,aswellasspecialcontainer orpackaging-equipment.

>Containersforsausagesmustbeclean,dry and free ofmold andunwantedodors.Reusablepackagingshouldhave thecover.

>Smokedsausageproducedbyweight orpackaged incolorfullydecoratedcardboardbox, netweightnotexceeding 2kg. Travelsausagesproducedweight orpacked incartons, netweight of 250 ... 500.Bagspackedwithsmokedsausages thesamename,grade anddate

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