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epea oapa oaae eee poya ao-o p aax opeee o ocax poyo aoo acca. epea pecae coo opy eeoo oype p. aopa poyoo epea oy c a ypeee aeco oapa ee eo ypex xapaepc, a eee aeco - e, paep, yaoa, ycy, oope copooa eo poay.

epea poya ee eco o ex op, oa ca opee pacea pae oape ap aece ecoepex aeee. B opeeeo cce poyoa epea pecae coo cyey xapaepcy oee oyaee.

poyoa epea oe a peao, ae ce pa aece oapo, ooeoc pyx yoax xapaepcax, a aoo. B ocee cyae pa oapx apo oc cyyo e xapaep, a ce ee ea, yao, eeo a. K aoo epea oo oec pa aaax ca oapa, apep, oa poae oae-ceoo poya coye pece aa poa coeo oapa.

epea poya ee y a ocec p. Bo-epx, poyooe paoopae coae poy ac p, ocoy cea axoc oyae, oope oaac pepe poyy eo ao oapo ap ao p. Cooeceo, ec oyae paccapa pae oape ap a ecoepee cycy, pa oe o ey a co ocoe oap e ypo e oypeo e oep oyaee. Bo-opx, poyoa epea oa oyae. Koa pa xo a po oo oapo apo, opee oya ee oee poyooe paoopae, oopoe cocoo ye cee cooecoa x peoe. poyoa epea pac oooc opeecoo opa.

pee ceo, ae cee poyoo epea poc ce oapx apo, peaaex pa a pe, a ae oeaype ycaex oapo oo po o pepe ao-o opac. e oee co oapx apo peaaec opee paax ooo poyooo acca e oee co oapo ycaec po ao opac, e e cee poyoo epea peeo aoy-o poyooy accy.

Cee poyoo epea oe epea a ocoe epepeco acoc cpoca. epepeca aoc oaae pea cpoca a a poy p ee e pyoo poya pyo oapo ap. e e epepeca acoc, e oee cycya c aax opeee pae oape ap e e cee poyoo epea. aoopo, cee poyoo epea ye e e, e e aee epepeco acoc cpoca.

Ee o oaaee cee poyoo epea cy ec po.

E = Z [qiln(1/qi)], = 1, ..., n,

e qi co aao, oopx opee oyae i- oap;

n co oyaex oapo.

Ec E = 1, opee oya ce poy oo o e aae. poe epea ec aca. p E = 0 opee pacpee co oy paoepo ey ce aaa. poe epea ec a.

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Ha pax epepoa poyo pa oaae opeeeo cee oooo ac, ooy ee yaa pa cpoca ye e opae ao. Bea aoa yao po cpoca - eoa a-coc cpoca oeo p - ac o cee poo ac, oopo oaae pa. Ha o ocpoe o eco, oeax cee oooo ac p a pe oooceco oype, - ec Poa.

ec Poa cpoc a ocoe coocae aeco yo aoa po pooo cpoca aoo poyooo acca po yaoo cpoca p, ycae ay-o oapy apy oo acca:

R = tga/tgb,

e R ec Poa;

tga aec ya aoa po yaoo cpoca;

tgb aec ya aoa po cooyo cpoca.

Ec pa e oaae poo ac, o ee ya cpoc e oaec o cooyoo pooo cpoca, oa ec Poa pae 1. e oe poa ac p, e oe paa aeco, e oe ya- cpoc ooec o pooo, a a a ya cpoc cea oee ace, o ce eca paec y, , ceoaeo, aee eca ae ye pac y.

pyo copo, ec apep xoa opac ocycy, o oocpoo epoe ooeca p p, ecyx a pe oooceco oype, a oaa .eep, ye paa y. Ec p oya oo-ey p, oe p xo opac, yca ee oy paooc oapa, yeeec cooyoe peoee ee ae e a oap. Ec p ecy y, ac p paopc ye opac, yeeec cooyoe peoee oe e o eyooo ypo. Ta opao, a pe oooceco oype oocpooe paoece, oe p, ocaec a, e ea oapa oaaec pao cpe epa yca.

ocoy cpee ep yca e U-opay opy, o oa paeca e (aoo po yaoo cpoca) cpex oocpox epe pec a yc e ao eoo, paoo yy cpex oocpox epe. Ceoaeo, pa oooceco oype xapaepo ee X-eeoc - yc oapa e ae epa.

볿

peoo, opac ecy e p, ycae epepoa poy. Cpoc ao p ocaec a:

Qdi(Pi, Pj) = a - bPi + dPj,

e Pi ea a oap ao p;

Pj ea a oap p-oypea;

a, b, d - ooee apaep pa.

Ta a poy p peca coo oap-cycy, o epepeca acoc cpoca ooea.

p o:

d < b - poc e oox oapo ee copae cpoca a oap epo p;

a > c(b - d) - ec pa ycaaae ey a ypoe peex epe , o ee yc ooee.

yc peee ep p pa oco. Kaa pa cpec acpoa p:

i = Qi(Pi - ).

epe yco aca p ao p ay ceye y pea:

Ri = Pi = [a + dPj + bc]/2b.

B ycox paoec e yx p yy pa:

P* = (a + bc)/(2b - d).

Oya oyae p ao p:

* = P* - = [a + c(b - d)]/(2b - d) > 0.

Ta opao, oyae, o ycox poyoo epea eoa oype ey pa po ooeo p ao p.

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Toap oo paccapa o pe cooyoc opeecx coc, oope e axo opee. Ta, aoo ox opeee pecae epec o pe ooc eo ae, pye oea e epy oepe e , pex ao yoco ypae . Cooeceo peoe opeee o ooe oapy oy pae e ap px epa, e op ocyecec ey y ( ec pe e o pocpace - N) eo xapaepca. y, poee aaa oopa, a epecee ao-o po epa oaae ecoc ao xapaepc oape. e oy ecoc o ao xapaepce ee oap, e e eo oeoc.

peoo, epoaao a pe pcycy e paooc oapa, A B, oeoc oopx oao aax opeee. opya pa ycae oap D a xapaepca, o eo oeoc peocxoa oeoc peyx apo oapa:

U(D) > U(A);

U(D) > U(B).

opee epeac a oap opye p, ocae p ep cpoc.

Paccop eep pyo cya. opya pa aao pcycoaa a pe ycaa oap B. B peye oe peoaa, o apa px epa oaoa opye p, pox p pa, o ec opee o e e y cex p pa. Teep ee oee coy peocy o o, o peoe opeee paac. peoe opeee o-pye p eee ac, e peoe opeee p-aycaepo. aaa opye p aaec o, o ye poyoo epea epea opeee p-aycaepo, o oca a coo cex cox peyx eo (e oyc ea caoopa). a e ocaec, ec oa apa oapa M, ycaea opye po, aae cooec co xa-paepca poeyooe eco a poyoo pa, a o:

U(M) > U(A);

U(M) < U(B).

B o cyae opee, paee pepee opye pe, ocac e o, ocoy oeoc ooo oapa x e, e oeoc capoo poya; a opee p-aycaepo epexo opee poya o-pye p, a a oeoc oeeo x e.

opee oy oea oap, poaaee pa pa, o pe pee, eoxooo oca poya, yoeopeo x ocoe peoa. e e poy ecoooe oyae e e eo coca pac eae xapaepca opee, e e p pox pax ycox oeoc aoo oapa. Cooeceo e e a poya pacooe py pyy e oee cxo c x coca, e oee cycya o yy aax opeee. Ta opao, oap oy paccapac pocpaceo poyoo pocpace. pyo copo, opee ae o-y paccapac pocpaceo poyoo pocpace: ec opee pacooe aeo o eca poa oapa, o ece ooee pacope apa a oyy poya; ec opee oyae oap eee eae coca, o oyae ey oeoc o eo opee. Ha ocoe x yx po ocpoe e ae oe pocpaceo epea poya oe Xoea oe Caoa. Paccop opoee .

peoo, o oape ap oac py o pya oo o oaaee -yaeoc o opee. yc opee pacooe paoepo o eceo y opoe. Ka opee pee cpoc a oy ey oapa. e p poa o o e oap. Oa pa pacooea a pacco a o ooo oa y, pya a pacco o pyoo ee oa (pc. 1). opee pa py, cxo pacopx epe: a oyae oap y o p, oopa pacooea e eo oy.

yc opee N e a pacco x o p A (pacooeo a pacco a o ooo oa y) a pacco y o p (pacooeo a pacco o pyoo oa y). Ec x > y, o opee ye peoa py . Ec x < y, o opee ye peoa py A. opee cea ye pa y py, oxo o oopo ye copooac oee pacop epa.

peoo, o e a oap oao y oox p. Toa p yco o pa ye pacooea a pacco o ooo oa y e oe cpo e coe ecopacooee, pa A epe aoe ecopacooee, p oopo ee p ye acao. oo pa A oa ae ooo oeo ca . pa A ye pacooea eee p , a pacco a1 o pyoo oa y. Bce opee, ye a o oe y, yy oya oap y p A, a x oco. B co oepe pa , ocoy oa ye ec oep o pacooe p A, epeecc cey epo eoo eee p A, a o epexa opeee, yx a o oe y. o poecc ye pooac o ex op, oa oe p e oayc epe y: oa y x ye oaooe co oyaee, poo ooa o oeo x oeca. aoe paoece ye ca paoece, ocoy p ao pacooe y oo p e ye cyo epeac ay-o copoy, e coe pacooee - apaep coe eeoc.

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a, p eoooc ee ypo e, ecopacooee yx p ye cy cpaeeco epeeo ooao opeec epo oac ocya. Ta, cceoa oape p pyx opoo, aeae, o aoa ooc aao eceo pxoc a ep opoo.

Ta opao, p cpoao ee ecopacooee poao ooo oo e oapa oaaec cpoo eeppoa. o pocpaceoe paoece ec paoece o Hy: a oo p opee coe paoecoe ecopacooee, y oo p e cyo e eo, ocoy o e pee pocy ca oyaee.

Booa pya

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