» » Methods of teaching speech


Methods of teaching speech

1 2 |

>Contents

 

>Introduction

>Chapter I. >Theoreticalfoundations ofteachingspeakingpupils ofjuniorform

1.1 Themost commondifficulties inauding andspeaking

1.2Psychologicalcharacteristics ofspeech

1.3Linguisticcharacteristics ofspeech

1.4Prepared andunpreparedspeech

1.5.Mistakes and how tocorrectthem

>Chapter II.Speaking inteachingpractice

2.1Speech andoralexercises

2.2Techniques theteacheruses todevelophearing .

2.3Techniques theteacherusesforteachingspeaking

>Conclusion

>List ofliterature

>Vocabulary


>Introduction

 

>Ourworkisdevoted to themethod ofteaching thespeech.Butfor thebeginningletsexaminewhatisspeech.

>Languagecameinto lifeas ameans ofcommunication.Itexists andisaliveonlythroughspeech.Whenwespeakaboutteaching aforeignlanguage,wefirst of allhave inmindteaching itas ameans ofcommunication.

>Inteachingspeech theteacherhas tocopewith twotasks.Theyare: toteach hispupils tounderstand theforeignlanguage and toteachthem tospeak thelanguage.So,speechis abilateralprocess.Itincludeshearing, on theonehand, andspeaking, on theother.Whenwesay ">hearing"wemeanauding orlistening andcomprehension.

>Speakingexists in twoforms:dialogue andmonologue.

Theaim ofourworkis:

1. toobserve thespeechas abilateralprocess;

2. togive thebasicnotions of thespeech;

3. tomakeanexamples ofexercises in ofspeaking andhearing.

Practicalvalue ofthispaperisdeterminedby thefact that thedevelopedmaterial andpropertasks andexercisesmakeavailable theuse ofthisworkas amanual inteaching aforeignlanguageatclassroom oras agivenhomework, oras ausefulmaterialforelectiveadditionalcourses offoreignlanguageatschool.

Thepaperconsists ofintroduction and twochaptersfollowedbyconclusion. Thefirstchapterisabout themost commondifficulties inauding andspeaking aforeignlanguage.Also itconsists ofpsychological andlinguisticcharacteristics of thespeech.Furtherwefinddifferencesbetweenprepared andunpreparedspeech and inthischapterwelearn tofindmistakes ofpupils and how tocorrectthem.In the secondchapteraregiven theexercises,whichhelp theteachers toobtainresults inteachingspeech.


>Chapter I. >Theoreticalfoundations ofteachingspeakingpupils ofjuniorform

 

1.1 Themost commondifficulties inauding andspeaking

>Auding orlistening andcomprehensionaredifficultforlearnersbecausetheyshoulddiscriminatespeechsoundsquickly,retainthemwhilehearing aword, aphrase, or asentence andrecognizethisas asenseunit.Pupilscaneasily andnaturallydothis intheirownlanguage andtheycannotdothis in aforeignlanguagewhentheystartlearning thelanguage.Pupilsareveryslow ingraspingwhattheyhearbecausetheyareconscious of thelinguisticformstheyperceiveby theear.Thisresults inmisunderstanding or acompletefailure ofunderstanding.

>Whenauding aforeignlanguagepupilsshouldbeveryattentive andthinkhard.Theyshouldstraintheirmemory andwill power tokeep thesequence ofsoundstheyhear and todecode it.Not all thepupilscancopewith thedifficultiesentailed. Theteachershouldhelpthembymakingthisworkeasier andmoreinteresting.Thisispossible oncondition thathewilltakeintoconsideration thefollowingthreemainfactorswhichcanensure success indevelopingpupils'skills inauding: (1)linguisticmaterialforauding; (2) thecontent of thematerialsuggestedforlistening andcomprehension; (3)conditions inwhich thematerialispresented.

1.Comprehension of thetextby theearcanbeensuredwhen theteacheruses thematerialwhichhasalreadybeenassimilatedbypupils.Howeverthisdoesnotcompletelyeliminate thedifficulties inauding.Pupilsneedpractice inlistening andcomprehension in thetargetlanguage tobeable toovercomethreekinds ofdifficulties:phonetic,lexical, andgrammatical.[4]

>Phoneticdifficultiesappearbecause thephonicsystem of English andRussiandiffergreatly. Thehearerofteninterprets thesounds of aforeignlanguageasiftheywere of hisownlanguagewhichusuallyresults inmisunderstanding. Thefollowingoppositespresentmuchtrouble tobeginners inlearning English:

> str t A os z a: o

> fdr dgd zt to: :

w vd v n rjae e

>Pupilsalsofind itdifficult todiscriminatesuchoppositesas:o: o, a A, : , u: u.

>Theycanhardlydifferentiate thefollowingwordsbyear: >worked walked;first fast forced;lion line;tired tide;bought boat board.

Thedifference inintonationoftenpreventspupilsfromcomprehending acommunication.Forexample, >Goodmorning (>whenmeeting); >Goodmorning (>atparting).

Theteacher,therefore,shoulddevelop hispupils'earfor Englishsounds andintonation.

>Lexicaldifficultiesarecloselyconnectedwith thephoneticones.Pupilsoftenmisunderstandwordsbecausetheyhearthemwrong.Forexample: Thehorseisslipping. Thehorseissleeping.Theyworkedtillnight.Theywalkedtillnight.

Theoppositesareoftenmisunderstood,for thelearnersoftentakeonewordforanother.Forexample: >eastwest,take put;ask answer. Themostdifficultwordsforaudingare theverbswithpostpositions,suchas: >put on,put off,putdown,take off,see off,go infor, etc.

>Grammaticaldifficultiesaremostlyconnectedwith theanalyticstructure of the Englishlanguage, andwith theextensiveuse ofinfinitive andparticipleconstructions.Besides, Englishisrich ingrammaticalhomonyms,forexample: towork work; toanswer answer; ->edas thesuffix of thePastIndefinite and thePastParticiple.

>Thisisdifficultforpupilswhentheyaud.

2. Thecontent of thematerialalsoinfluencescomprehension. Thefollowingfactorsshouldbe takenintoconsiderationwhenselecting thematerialforauding:

Thetopic ofcommunication:whether itiswithin theability of thepupils tounderstand, andwhatdifficultiespupilswillcomeacross (>propernames,geographicalnames,terminology, etc).

Thetype ofcommunication:whether itis adescription or anarration.Descriptionas atype ofcommunicationislessemotional andinteresting, thatiswhy itisdifficultfor theteacher toarousepupils'interest inaudingsuch atext.Narrationismoreinterestingforauding.Consequently,thistype ofcommunicationshouldbeusedforlisteningcomprehension.

Thecontext andpupils'readiness (>intellectual andsituational) tounderstand it. Theway thenarrativeprogresses:whether thepassageis takenfrom thebeginning of a story, thenucleus of the story, theprogress of theaction or,finally, the end of the story. Thetitle of the storymaybehelpful incomprehending themainidea of thetext. Thesimpler thenarrativeprogresses, thebetter itisfordevelopingpupils'skills inauding.

Theform ofcommunication:whether thetextis adialogue or amonologue.Monologicspeechiseasierfor thelearners,therefore, itispreferablefordevelopingpupils'ability toaud.

3.Conditions ofpresenting thematerialare ofgreatimportanceforteachingauding,namely:

Thespeed of thespeech thepupilisauding. Thehearercannot change thespeed of thespeaker.

>Therearedifferentpoints ofview on the problem of thespeed ofspeech inteachingauding aforeignlanguage. Themostconvincingis theapproachsuggestedby N. V.Elukhina.Shebelieves that inteachingauding thetemposhouldbeslowerthan thenormalspeed ofauthenticspeech.Howeverthisslownessisnotgainedat theexpense of thetimerequiredforproducingwords (thatmightresult inviolating theintonationpattern ofanutterance),but of thetimerequiredforpauseswhicharesonecessaryfor apupil tograsp the information ofeachportionbetween thepauses.Gradually theteachershortens thepauses and thetempo ofspeechbecomesnormal orapproximatelynormal,whichisabout 150wordsperminute.According to theinvestigationcarried outby L.Tzesarsky theaveragespeedforteachingaudingshouldbe 120wordsperminute; theslowspeed 90wordsperminute.

Thenumber oftimes ofpresenting thematerialforauding:whether thepupilsshouldlisten to thetextonce,twice,threetimes ormore.Pupilsshouldbetaught tolisten to thetextonce andthismustbecome ahabit.Howevertheysometimescangrasponly 50% of the information andevenless,so a secondpresentationmaybehelpful.Incase thepupilscannotgraspmost of the information,practiceproves thatmanifoldrepetitionswhenhearingdonothelpmuch.Itisnecessary tohelppupils incomprehensionbyusing a ">feedback"establishedthrough adialoguebetween theteacher and theclass 1whichtakesasmuchtimeas itisrequiredfor therepetitivepresentation of thematerial.[2]

Thepresence or theabsence of thespeaker. Themostfavorableconditioniswhenpupilscansee thespeakerasis thecasewhen theteacherspeaks tothem in aforeignlanguage. Themostunfavorableconditionforaudingislistening andcomprehending adialogue,whenpupilscannotsee thespeakers anddonottakepart in theconversation.

>Visual ">props"whichmaybe of twokinds,objects andmotions.Pupilsfind itdifficult toaudwithoutvisualprops. Theeyeshouldhelp theear tograsp atextwhendealingwithbeginners.

Thevoice of thespeakeralsoinfluencespupils'comprehension.Pupils whogetused to theteacher'svoicecaneasilyunderstandhim,buttheycannotunderstandotherpeoplespeaking thesamelanguage.

>Consequently, inteachinglisteningcomprehension theteachershouldbear inmind all thedifficultiespupilsencounterwhenauding in aforeignlanguage.

>Speaking aforeignlanguageis themostdifficultpart inlanguagelearningbecausepupilsneedamplepractice inspeaking tobeable tosay afewwords oftheirown inconnectionwith asituation.Thisworkistime-consuming andpupilsrarelyfeelany realnecessity tomakethemselvesunderstoodduring thewholeperiod oflearning a newlanguage inschool. Thestimuli theteachercanuseareoftenfeeble andartificial. Thepupilrepeats thesentencehehears,hecompletessentences thatare in thebook,heconstructssentences on thepattern of agivenone.Thesemechanicaldrillexercisesare, ofcourse,necessary;however,whentheygo onyearafteryearwithoutanyother reallanguagepracticetheyaredeadening.Theremustbeoccasionswhen thepupilsfeel thenecessity toinformsomeone ofsomething, toexplainsomething, and toprovesomething tosomeone.Thisis apsychologicalfactorwhichmustbe takenintoaccountwhenteachingpupils tospeak aforeignlanguage.

>Anotherfactor ofnolessimportanceis apsycho-linguisticone; thepupilneedswords,phrases,sentencepatterns, andgrammaticalforms andstructuresstored up in hismemoryready tobeusedforexpressinganythoughthewants to.Inteachingspeaking,therefore, theteachershouldstimulate hispupils'speechbysupplyingthemwith thesubject andbyteachingthem thewords andgrammartheyneed tospeakabout thesuggestedtopic orsituation. Theteachershouldlead hispupils tounpreparedspeakingthroughpreparedspeaking.[5]

1.2Psychologicalcharacteristics ofspeech

 

Thedevelopment ofspeakingfollows thesamepatternboth in themothertongue and in aforeignlanguagefromreception toreproductionaspsychologistssay, andfromhearing tospeakingifweexpress it interms ofmethodology.

>Since ">languageisnot asubstance, itis aprocess." (N.Brooks) and ">languagedoesn'texist.Ithappens." (>P.Stevens),weshould knowunderwhatconditions "ithappens".Whatare thepsychologicalcharacteristics oforallanguage?Theyareasfollows:

1.Speechmustbemotivated, . e., thespeakerexpresses adesire toinform thehearer ofsomethinginteresting,important, or toget informationfromhim.Supposeone of thepupilsistalking to afriend ofhers.Whyisshetalking?Becauseshewants toeithertellherfriendaboutsomethinginteresting, orget informationfromheraboutsomethingimportant.Thisis thecase ofinnermotivation.Butveryoftenoralspeechismotivatedoutwardly.Forinstance, thepupil'sanswersatanexamination.

>Rulefor theteacher:Inteaching aforeignlanguage itisnecessary tothinkover themotiveswhichmakepupilsspeak.Theyshouldhave anecessity tospeak andnotonly adesire toreceive agoodmark,Ensureconditions inwhich apupilwillhave adesire tosaysomething in theforeignlanguage, toexpress histhoughts, hisfeelings, andnot toreproducesomeoneelse'sasisoften thecasewhenhelearns thetextbyheart.Remember thatoralspeech in theclassroomshouldbealwaysstimulated.Try tousethosestimuliwhichcanarouse apupil'swish torespond in hisownway.

2.Speechisalwaysaddressed toaninterlocutor.

>Rulefor theteacher:Organize theteachingprocess in awaywhichallowsyourpupils tospeak tosomeone, totheirclassmates inparticular, . e.,whenspeaking apupilshouldaddress theclass, andnot theteacher or theceilingasisoften thecase.Whenheretells atextwhichisnolonger new to theclass,nobodylistens tohimas theclassmatesarealreadyfamiliarwith it.Thispoint,asonecansee,iscloselyconnectedwith thepreviousone. Thespeakerwill hold hisaudiencewhenhesayssomething new,somethingindividual (>personal).Try tosupplypupilswithassignmentswhichrequireindividualapproach ontheirpart.

3.Speechisalwaysemotionallycoloredfor aspeakerexpresses histhoughts, hisfeelings, hisattitude towhathesays.

>Rulefor theteacher: >Teachpupils how touseintonationalmeans toexpresstheirattitude,theirfeelingsaboutwhattheysay.Thatcanbedonebygivingsuchtasksas:reasonwhyyoulike the story;provesomething;giveyouropinion on theepisode, or on the problemconcerned, etc.

4.Speechisalwayssituationalfor ittakesplace in acertainsituation.

>Rulefor theteacher:Whileteachingspeaking real andclose-to-realsituationsshouldbecreated tostimulatepupils'speech.Think of thesituationsyoucanuse inclass tomakepupils'speechsituational.Remember thebetteryou know theclass theeasier itisforyou tocreatesituationsforpupils tospeakabout.

>Theseare thefourpsychologicalfactorswhichare tobe takenintoaccountwhenteachingspeech.[1]


1.3Linguisticcharacteristics ofspeech

>Orallanguageascompared towrittenlanguageismoreflexible.Itisrelatively free andischaracterizedbysomepeculiarities invocabulary andgrammar. Takingintoconsideration,however, the]conditions inwhich theforeignlanguageistaught inschools,wecannotteachpupilscolloquial English.Weteachthem Standard Englishasspoken on the radio, TV, etc.Orallanguagetaught inschoolsisclose towrittenlanguagestandards andespeciallyitsmonologicform.Itmustbeemphasized that apupilshoulduseshortsentences inmonologue,sentencepatternswhicharecharacteristic oforallanguage.Weneednotteachpupils touselongsentenceswhiledescribing apicture.Forexample: Theboyhas alongbluepencil in hislefthand. Thechildmayusefoursentencesinstead ofone: Theboyhas apencil.Ifs in hislefthand. Thepencilislong.Itisblue.

>Pupilsshouldbeacquaintedwithsomepeculiarities of thespokenlanguage,otherwisetheywillnotunderstand itwhenhearing andtheirownspeechwillbeartificial.Thismainlyconcernsdialogues.Linguisticpeculiarities ofdialogueareasfollows:

1. Theuse ofincompletesentences (>ellipses) inresponses:

Howmanybookshaveyou?

One.

Doyougo toschool on Sunday?

No, - Idon't.

Whohasdone it?

Nickhas.

>Itdoesnotmean, ofcourse,weshouldnotteachpupilscompleteforms ofresponse.Buttheiruseshouldbejustified.

Haveyouseen the film?

Yes, Ihaveseenthis film, and IamsorryI'vewasted twohours.

Didyoulike thebook?

Yes, Iliked itverymuch.

2. Theuse ofcontractedforms:doesn't,won't,can't,isn't, etc.

3. Theuse ofsomeabbreviations:lab (>laboratory),mike (>microphone),maths (>mathematics),p.m. (postmeridiem), andothers.

4. Theuse ofconversationaltags.Theseare thewords aspeakeruseswhenhewishes tospeakwithoutsayinganything.Hereisboth adefinition ofconversationaltags andanexample oftheirusage inconversation (>theyare initalics),

">Well,theyarethosethings, >you know,whichdon'tactuallymeanverymuch, ofcourse,yettheyare infactnecessary in Englishconversationasbehavior."

>Besides, tocarry on aconversationpupilsneedwords,phrases tostart aconversation, tojoin it, toconfirm, tocomment, etc.Forexample,well, lookhere, Isay ...,Idlike totellyou (>forstarting atalk);yousee,youmean,doyoumean tosay that ..., andwhatabout (>forjoining aconversation); /believeso, Ihope,yes,right,quiteright, tobesure (>forconfirmingwhatonesays); /think,asfaras I know,asfaras Icansee, thefactis, totell thetruth, Imean tosay (>forcommenting), etc.

>Thereis agreatvariety ofdialoguestructures.Hereare the principalfour:

1.Question response.

Hello.What'syourname?

Ann.What'syours?

MynameisWilliams

2.Question question.

Willyouhelpme,sonny?

Whatshall Ido,mother?

Willyoupolish thefloor today?

Is itmyturn?

Yes, itis.Yourbrotherdid it lasttime.

Oh, allright,then.

3.Statement statement.

I'dlike to knowwhenheisgoing tocome andseeus.

That'sdifficult tosay. Heisalwayspromisingbutnevercomes.

It'sbecauseheisverybusy.

That'sright. Heworkshard.

4.Statement question.

I'mgoing to thetheatretonight.

Wheredidyougettickets?

Myfriendgotthemsomewhere.

Howdidhedo it?

Idon't know.

>Inschoolteachingonlyonestructure ofdialogueisusuallyused,i.e.,question response.Morethan that,pupils'dialoguesareartificial andtheylack,as arule, all thepeculiaritiesmentionedabove.

>Inteachingdialogue inschools itisnecessary totakeintoaccountthesepeculiarities andgivepupilspatterndialogues toshowwhat realdialogues looklike.[2]

1.4Prepared andunpreparedspeech

 

>Pupils'speech inbothformsmaybe of twokinds:prepared andunprepared.Itisconsideredpreparedwhen thepupilhasbeengiventimeenough tothinkoveritscontent andform. Hecanspeak on thesubjectfollowing theplanmadeeitherindependentlyathome or inclassunder theteacher'ssupervision.Hisspeechwillbemore orlesscorrect andsufficientlyfluentsinceplenty ofpreliminaryexerciseshadbeendonebefore.

>Inschools,however,pupilsoftenhave tospeak on atopicwhentheyarenotyetpreparedfor it.As aresultonlybrightpupilscancopewith thetask.Insuch acase theteachertrying tofind away out '>gives hispupils atextwhichcovers thetopic.Pupilslearn andrecite it inclass.Theyreproduce thetexteither in theveryform itwasgiven orslightlytransform it.Reciting,thoughuseful andnecessary inlanguagelearning,hasbutlittle todowithspeechsincespeakingis acreativeactivity andiscloselyconnectedwiththinking,whilerecitinghas todoonlywithmemory.Ofcoursepupilsshouldmemorizewords,wordcombinations,phrases,sentencepatterns, andtexts to ">accumulate" thematerial andstill itisonly aprerequisite. Themainobjective of thelearneris tobeable touse thelinguisticmaterial toexpress histhoughts.Thisisensuredby thepupil'sability toarrange andrearrange in hisownway thematerialstored up in hismemory.Consequently,whileassigninghomework itisnecessary todistinguishbetweenreciting andspeakingso that thepupilshould knowwhatheisexpected todowhilepreparingfor thelesson toreproduce thetext or tocompile atext of hisown.Hisanswershouldbeevaluateddifferentlydepending on thetaskset.If thepupilis torecite atext, theteacherevaluates thequality ofreproduction, . e.,exactness,intonation andfluency.If thepupilis tospeak on asubject, theteacherevaluatesnotonly thecorrectness of hisspeechbut hisskills inarranging andrearranging themateriallearnt, . e., hisability tomakevarioustransformationswithin thematerialheuseswhilespeaking. Theteachershouldencourageeachpupil tospeak on thesubject in hisownway andthusdeveloppupils'initiative andthinking.

Thepupil'sspeechisconsideredunpreparedwhen,withoutanypreviouspreparation,hecando thefollowing:

Speak on asubjectsuggestedby theteacher.Forexample,winterholidaysareover andpupilscomeback toschool.Theyareinvited totell theteacher and theclass howeach ofthemspent hisholidays.Pupils inturntell theclasswheretheywere,whattheydid,whethertheyhad agoodtime, andso on.

Speak on thetextread.Forexample,pupilshaveread two orthreechapters of ">William". Theteacherasks apupil togiveitsshortsummary or totell theclass thecontents of thechaptersasif theotherpupilshavenotreadthem.

Speak on thetextheard.Forexample,pupilslistened to thetext ">GreatBritain" (>thereis a map ofGreatBritain on thewall). Theteacherasksthem (inturn) tocome up to the map andspeak onGreatBritain.Whilespeakingpupilscanuse the informationtheyhavejustreceived orappeal totheirknowledgeabout thecountry.

Discuss a problem orproblemstouchedupon in thetextread orheard.Forexample,pupilsreadabouteducation inGreatBritain.After theteachermakessure that hispupilsunderstand thetext andhave acertainidea of thesystem ofeducation inGreatBritain,hearranges adiscussion on the problem. Heasks hispupils tocompare thesystem ofeducation inGreatBritain and inourcountry. Theteacherstimulatespupils'speecheitherbyquestions orthroughwrongstatements.

Haveaninterviewwith "aforeigner".Forexample,pupilsarestudying thetopic "London". Theteachermayarrangeaninterview.One of thepupilsis "aLondoner". Theclassmatesaskhimvariousquestions andexpresstheiropinions on thesubjectsunderdiscussion.

Help a ">foreigner",forexample, tofind theway to themainstreet orsquare of thetown; orinstructhimas to theplaces ofinterest in thetown.Thismaybedonedirectly orwith thehelp of ">aninterpreter".

>Thereare, ofcourse,othertechniquesforstimulatingpupils'unpreparedspeech. Theteacherchooses thetechniquesmostsuitablefor hispupilssinceheknowstheiraptitudes,theirprogress in thelanguage, thetimehehasat hisdisposalfordevelopingspeakingskills, theconcretematerialatwhichpupilsareworking.

>Inconclusion itshouldbesaid thatprepared andunpreparedspeechmustbedevelopedsimultaneouslyfrom theverybeginning. Therelationshipbetweenprepared andunpreparedspeechshouldvarydepending on thestage oflearning thelanguage.In thejuniorstagepreparedspeechtakes thelead,while in theseniorstageunpreparedspeechshouldprevail.[6]

 

1.5Mistakes and how tocorrectthem

 

>Itisnaturalwhilelearning aforeignlanguage thatpupilsmakemistakes.Theymakemistakes inaudingwhentheymisunderstandsomething in atext.Theymakemistakes inspeakingwhenpupilsmispronounce aword,violate theorder ofwords in asentence,misuse apreposition,anarticle,usewrongintonation, etc. Theteacher'smainaimis topreventpupils'errors.Thereis agoodrule: ">Correctmistakesbeforetheyoccur."Inotherwords,carefulteachingresults incorrect English, . e.,pupilsmakeveryfewmistakes.However,theymakethem, and the problemis how tocorrectpupilserrors.

>If apupilmisunderstandssomethingwhenauding theteachershoulddo his best toensurecomprehension. Hesuggests that thepupilshouldeitherlisten to thesentenceagain;ifhedoesnotunderstand itproperly theteacher or theclassmateshelphim toparaphrase thesentence ortranslate" it, orsee itwritten. Thelatteroftenhelpsifpupilsdonotgetused tohearing,iftheyareeye-learners.Asfarasspeakingisconcerned itis theteacher whocorrectspupils'mistakes.Itis abadhabit ofsometeachers toaskpupils tonoticemistakeswhentheirclassmateiscalled infront of theclass tospeak.

>Thisisdue to thefollowingreasons.Firstly,pupils'attentionisdrawn,not towhat theclassmatesays,but to howhesays it, . e.,not to thecontent,but to theform.Ifweadmit that theformmaynotalwaysbecorrect,thenwhyshouldweconcentratepupils'attention on theform?Moreover,whenpupils'attentioniscentered onerrors,theyoftendonotgraspwhat theclassmatesays, and thatiswhytheycannotaskquestions orcontinue the storyhehastoldthem.

>Secondly, thepupil whospeaksthinksmoreabout how tosaysomethinginstead of >what tosay. Nospeakingispossiblewhen thespeakerhas toconcentrate on theform. Hemakesmoreerrorsunderthiscondition.Morethan that,heoftenrefuses tospeakwhenhesees theclassmatesraisetheirhandsafterhehasuttered hisfirstsentence.Thisdoesnotencourage thelearner tospeak.

>Accordinglywhen apupiliscalled to thefront of theclass tospeak, theclassisinvited tofollowwhathesaysso thattheymaybeable toaskquestions or togo onwith the storywhenhestops.

>Thereis agreatvariety oftechniquesat theteacher'sdisposal. Heselects theone thatismostsuitablefor theoccasion.

1.If apupilmakes amistake insomethingwhichisfamiliar tohim, itispreferable tocorrect itatonce.But inordernot toconfuse thepupil and stop hisnarration theteacherhelps thechildwith thecorrectversion.

>Pupil:Mymotherget upat 7o'clock.

>Teacher: Isee,yourmothergets upearlierthanyou.

>Pupil:Yes,mymothergets upat 7.

2.If apupilmakes amistake insomethingwhichhehasnotlearnedyet theteachercorrects hismistakesafterhehasfinishedspeaking.

>Pupil:Shefirstvisitedus in 1960.

>Sheis agoodfriend ofourssince.

Theteachergives thecorrectsentence: >Shehasbeen agoodfriend ofourssince.

>Ifmanypupilsmake thesamemistakes,forinstance, inprepositions (>go ininstead of >go to),articles (the Moscowinstead of Moscow, or >Volga >instead of theVolga), intenseforms (thePresentContinuous >instead of thePresentIndefinite) theteachermakesnote ofthem andgets thepupils toperformdrillexercisesafteransweringquestions.[5]

Theteachershouldnotemphasizeincorrectforms inanyway ortheywillbememorizedalongwith thecorrectones,forinstance: Booksis.Doyousay ">booksis"? Youshouldn'tsay ">booksis".Whatshouldyousay?


>Chapter II.Speaking inteachingpractice

 

2.1Speech andoralexercises

>Wemustdistinguishspeech andoralexercisesfortheyareoftenmixed upby theteacher.

>Speechis aprocess ofcommunicationbymeans oflanguage.Forexample, (1) apupiltells theclass a storyaboutsomethingwhichoncehappened tohim; (2) theteacherasksquestions on the storyreadby thepupilsathome andstarts adiscussion; (3)pupilsspeak on thepicturessuggestedby theteacher,eachtries tosaywhatothershavenotmentioned; (4)pupilslisten to the story andgetsome new informationfrom thetext; (5)theysee a sound film andlearnaboutsomething newfrom it, etc.

>Oralexercisesareusedfor thepupils toassimilatephonetics,grammar, andvocabulary.Theyaremostlydrillexercises and theteacherturns tothemwheneverheworksatenrichingpupils'knowledge invocabulary andgrammar,atimprovingpupils'pronunciation, etc.Forexample,reciting arhyme or apoemisconsidered tobeanexcellentoralexercisefordrillingpronunciation andfordevelopingspeechhabits.Making upsentencesfollowing themodelisanexcellentoralexerciseforfixing asentencepattern andwordswhich fit thepattern in thepupils'mind.Makingstatementswith thewords orphrases theteachergivesisanothervaluableoralexercisewhichallows theteacher toretainthem in hispupils'memorythroughmanifoldrepetitions.

>Oralexercisesarequiteindispensable todevelopingspeech.However,theyonlypreparepupilsforspeaking andcannotbeconsidered tobe >speechassometeachersareapt tothink and whoareoftensatisfiedwithoralexerciseswhichpupilsperformfollowing themodel;theyseldomusestimulifordevelopingpupils'auding andspeaking in thetargetlanguage.[5]

>Inorder toget abetterunderstanding ofwhatspeechisweare toconsider thepsychological andlinguisticcharacteristics ofspeech.

2.2Techniques theteacheruses todevelophearing

>Tofulfil thetask theteachermusttrain hispupils inlisteningcomprehensionbeginningwith thefirstlesson andthroughout thewholeperiod ofinstruction.Theseare thetechniques theteacherusesfor thepurpose:

1. Theteacheruses theforeignlanguage:

(a)whengiving theclassinstructions;

(b)whenpresenting newlanguagematerial (>words,sentencepatterns);

()whencheckingpupils'comprehension;

(>d)whenconsolidating thematerialpresented;

(e)whencheckingpupils'assimilation of thelanguagematerialcovered.

>Theseare thecaseswhen thetargetlanguageisusedas ameans ofcommunication and ameans ofteaching.Thereis agreat deal ofauding in all thepoints of thelesson.Thisraises the problem of theteacher'sspeechduring thelesson.Itshouldbecorrect,sufficientlyloud,clear, andexpressive.Butmany of theteachersaretootalkative.Wecanhearthemspeakingmost of thetime.Moreover,someteachersspeak agreat deal inRussian.

>Conducting alesson in aforeignlanguagegives theteacheranopportunity todeveloppupils'abilities inhearing; totrainthem inlistening tohimattentivelyduring thelesson; todemonstrate thelanguageas ameans ofcommunication; toprovidefavorableconditionsfor theassimilation of thelanguage; toperfect hisownspeakingskills; tokeep hisownspeechunder control, . e., tokeephimselffromunduetalkativeness.

2. Theteacherusesdrill andspeechexercisesfordevelopinglisteningcomprehension.

>Wecan groupdrillexercisesintoexercisesdesignedforovercominglinguisticdifficulties, andexerciseswhichcaneliminatepsychologicaldifficulties.

Thefirst group ofdrillexercisesincludes:

(a)phoneticexerciseswhichwillhelp theteacher todevelop hispupils'earfor Englishsounds:

Listen to thefollowingwords andraiseyourhandswhenyouhear thewordswith [>ae] (Theteachersays:desk,pen,ten,bag, etc.)

Listen to thefollowingpairs ofwords andsay inwhat soundtheydiffer: >pen pin;bed bad;eyes ice;white wide.

(b)lexicalexerciseswhichwillhelp theteacher todeveloppupils'skills inrecognizingwords:

Listen to thewords andrecognize thewordboyamongotherwords: a baby, atoy, aboat, aboy, a girl.

Listen to thefollowingwords andraiseyourhandswhenyouhear thewordsreferring toplants: >street,tree,grass,class,flower,tower.

Listen to thefollowingsentences andsaywhether thewordcountryhas thesamemeaning inbothsentences:

Iusuallyspentmyholidays in thecountry.

TheSoviet Unionis alargecountry.

()grammarexerciseswhichhelp theteacher todeveloppupils'skills inrecognizinggrammarforms andstructures:

Listen to thefollowingwords andraiseyourhandswhenyouhearwords inplural:desk,tables,book,box,pens,books,boxes, etc.

Listen to thefollowingsentences andsay inwhichone thewordhelpisusedas anoun.

Hecanhelpyou. Ineed hishelp.

The second group ofdrillexercisesincludes:

(a)exerciseswhichhelp theteacher todevelop hispupils'auditorymemory:

Listen to thefollowingwords andtry tomemorizethem. (Theteacherpronounces anumber ofwordspointing to theobjecteachdenotes: acarrot, apotato, acucumber, atomato. >Afterwardspupilsaretold topoint to theobject theteachernames.)

Listen to thephrases andrepeatthem. Theteachersays: on thetable,, in thebox,near theblackboard.

Listen to thesentences andrepeatthem. (Theteachersays: Iliketea.Anndoesn'tliketea.Shelikesmilk.)

Listen to thesentences andrepeatthem in thesamesequence. (Theteachersays: >In theeveningwehavetea. Ilike itverymuch. Theteachermayincrease thenumber ofsentencesforpupils tomemorize.)

(b)exerciseswhicharedesignedfordevelopingpupils'attention:

Listen to thefollowingtext: Ihave asister.HernameisAnn.Mikehasnosister. Hehas abrother.

>Nowsaywhatis thename ofMike'ssister.

Listen to thetext. (Thetextfollows.)Nowsaywhichsentencewasomitted (>added)whenyoulistened to it a secondtime.

()exerciseswhichdeveloppupils'visualimagination:

Listen to thefollowingdefinition andgive it aname: >Wewritewith it on theblackboard.Wetake itwhen itrains.

Listen andsaywhichseason itis:Itiscold.Itoftensnows.Childrencanskate andski.

(>d)exerciseswhichhelp theteacher todevelop hispupils'logicalthinking:

Listen to thesentences andsaywhethertheyarelogicallyarranged: >HernameisMary.Thisis a girl.

>Drillexercisesarequiteindispensable todevelopingpupils'skills inlisteningcomprehension.

>Speechexercisesaredesignedfordevelopingpupils'skills inauding.Severalgroups ofexercisesmaybesuggested:

1.Exerciseswhichteachpupils tounderstandtextsdifferent incontent,form, andtype.Pupilsareasked tolisten to adescription or anarration; thetextmaybe adialogue, itmay dealwith the life ofpeoplewhoselanguage thepupilsstudy, orwith thepupils'environment.

Listen to the story.Yourtaskis todefineitsmainidea. Youshouldchooseoneamongthosesuggestedby theteacher.

Listen to the story.Yourtaskis tograspasmuch informationasyoucan.Whileaudingtry toputdownkeywords andsentences;theywillhelpyou toconvey thecontext of the story.

2.Exerciseswhichdeveloppupils'skills tounderstand atextunderdifferentconditions. Soundproducingaidsshouldbeextensivelyusedfordevelopingpupils'auding,aspupilsaresupposed tounderstandnotonlytheirteacher'sspeech,butotherpeoplespeaking thetargetlanguage,includingnativespeakers.Besides, soundproducingaidsallow theteacher tosupplypupilswithrecordedspeechdifferent inspeed andvoice.

>Beforepupilsareinvited tolisten to thetext theteachershouldensure that all thewords andgrammararefamiliar to thepupilsotherwiselanguagedifficultieswillpreventthemfromunderstanding the story.Thus,iftherearesomeunfamiliarwords, theteacherintroducesthembeforehand;heeitherputsthemdown on theblackboardwith themothertongueequivalents in thesequencetheyappear in thetext, orheaskspupils topronounce thewordswritten on theblackboardifheplans atalk on thetextafterwards, andpupilsare tousethesewords intheirspeech.[5]

>Then theteachershoulddirect hispupils'attention towhattheyaregoing tolisten to.Thisis ofgreatimportanceforexperimentsprove thatifyouraimis thatyourpupilsshouldkeep ontalking on thetexttheyhaveheard itstimulatestheirthinking andfacilitatestheircomprehension of thetext.

Thefollowingtasksmaybesuggested todrawpupilsattention towhattheyareauding:

Listen andtry tograsp themainidea of the story. Youwillbeaskedquestionslater on.

Listen andtry tograsp thedetails. Youwillhave tonamethem.

Listen andmake aplan of the story.

Listen to the story andtry tofinish it (>think of the end of the story).

Listen to the story. Youwillaskquestions on itafterwards.

Listen to thetext. Youwillretell itafterwards.

Listen to the story.Weshallhave adiscussion on it.Etc.

>Whenpupilsareready tolisten, thetextcanberead tothem.If itis theteacher whoreads ortells the story,hecanhelppupils tocomprehend thetextwithgestures.If thetextisrecorded, apicture orpicturescanfacilitatecomprehension. Thepupilslisten to thetextonceasisusually thecase in realcommunication.Then theteachercheckstheircomprehension.Iftheyhavenotunderstood it,theyaretold tolisten to thetextagain. Theteachercanuse adialogue tohelppupils tounderstand thetextaftertheyhavelistened to the storyfor thefirsttime, . e.,hemayaskquestions,makestatements on thetextforpupils toagree orrejectthem.

>Checkingpupils'comprehensionmaybedone

1 2 |

: