Реферат Concepts of democracy

>Introduction

Themainpart. The politicalcontent ofdemocracy

>Doctrine ofliberal andpluralisticdemocracy

>Concept ofcorporate political science, andothervarieties ofproletariandemocracy

>Conclusions


>Introduction

Homecontradiction ofdemocracy - acontradictionbetween theidea ofdemocracyas theauthority of thepeople and theimpossibility ofitspracticalimplementation. Thefamous BritishphilosopherKarlPopperbelieveddemocracyisnotonlyimpossiblebutalsoirrelevant.Indeed,democracy initsdirectsense (>asdirectpeople power)isimpossibleevenpurelytechnically,becausetherearenomechanisms toprovidedirectnarodopravstvowithanygovernmentissueat alllevels.Moreover,suchnarodopravstvoinappropriate and interms ofefficiency of state power,since theabsolutemajority ofpeopleincompetent indealingwithspecificcases ofgovernment andsociety.Moreover, therulingmajority,aspeople ingeneral,undercertainconditionsmaybeas atyrant,assoledespot.

>In thewestern world todaymany commonconception ofdemocracy.All ofthemoneway or theextenttakeintoaccount thenature ofsocietyas a post.Most politicalanalystsbased on thefact that thefundamentalcharacteristic ofdemocracyis opendecision-makingthroughrepresentativegovernment, thatthisprocessatanylevelis theparticipation ofelectedrepresentatives of thepeople.Democracy,whichexist today in thewestern world,anywaypartlybased on theprinciples ofclassicalliberaldemocracy thatemerged in theeighteenthcentury.Through alongsearchfound a politicalthought inherform ofgovernment thatis bestdesigned tocombine thefreedom,democracy andlaw.

>Inanidealdemocracyunderstand thatitscurrentstandardbywhichassessvariousforms ofdemocraticgovernance.Itis thestartingpointfor the ">construction" ofvariousconcepts (intheory) anddifferentmodels (inpractice)democraticsystem.Depending on howpeopleimaginethemselves to thedemocraticideal that themostvalue andwhyaccentuate thenotion ofdemocracydepends ontheircommitment tocertainconcepts orcertainkinds ofdemocracy.


Themainpart. The politicalcontent ofdemocracy

Theconcept ofdemocracyhasbeen two and ahalfthousandyears.Indifferentcenturies in thehistory of politicalthoughtwasgiven to thetermambiguousinterpretation.With thecomplication of politicalstratification andpictures onher politicaldoctrines thatappeal todemocracy, thelattertook onvariousinterpretations.

>However,therearesimilarities, thatallow todetermine thegeneralfeatures thatcharacterizethis or thatsystemasdemocratic, and inparticular onquantitativeparameters -asmoredemocratic orlessdemocratic.

Theclassicaldefinition ofdemocracyisinextricablylinked toitsetymologicalorigin. Thetermcomesfrom theGreekword,which inturnconsists of twowords:demos - thepeople andkratos - the power ofgovernment.Born inantiquity,democracyliterallymeans ">people power" or "thepeople" [4].

>In political science theterm ">democracy"isused infoursenses:

howpeople power;

>as aform ofstructure ofanyorganizationbased onprinciples ofequality ofitsmembers,selectivity anddecisionmakingbymajority (>party-Profsoyuzna,youth, etc.);

>asanidealsocialorder anditsassociatedworldview andvaluesystem;

>as amovementfordemocracy (>socialdemocratic,Christiandemocratic, etc.) [2].

>However,over thelongeronecentury in thehistory of politicalthought in theconcept of ">nation"bydifferentauthors,academicschools andconcepts fitdifferentmeaning. Thesamecanbesaidabout thedifferentinterpretations of themechanism ofdemocracy.comparison ofdemocraticpractice to theconcepts ofdemocracyshows that thelatter, on theonehand,oftenfollowed theempiricalmaterial, on theother -havesought todevelopanidealmodel ofdemocraticsystemwhichtakesintoaccount theexperience of thehistoricaldevelopment ofitsnegative andpositiveeffects.Therefore,ifyoudeeplyanalyze theessence ofdemocracy, itwouldbringunder real politicalsystemwith the realneeds ofsocialdevelopment.

>AllthisnecessitatesTypingtheoreticalmodels ofdemocracy,which inturnresulted in a realpractice of politicaldevelopment.One of thefirstattemptstypification ofthesemodelswasmadeby Canadian politicalscientist P.S.McPherson. Explorer problemis the English politicalscientistJ.Held, who in hiswork ">model ofdemocracy"singled outdifferenttypes ofdemocracy:classical,ancientdemocracy (>democracy inancientGreece,Atheniandemocracy),republicanism (>republicanism inancientRome and themedievalcityRepublic), theprotectivedemocracy,democracy,developing thetheory ofmortality of state (>Marx);elitaryzmcompetitive,pluralisticdemocracy,democratictheorypartitsypatornoyi;legalmodel ofdemocracy [4].

>Iftalkingis that thehistoricalgenesis ofdemocracy along andcontroversial.Born inancientGreece theidea ofdemocracyisnotfoundthereardentsupportersamongphilosophers.Concept of thebrightestrepresentatives of thetime ofPlato andAristotlewerebased on theoppositionbetween ">right" and ">distorted"forms ofgovernment and power.Democracytheyzarahovuvaly to ">distorted"form.In the nextcenturyasdominatedskeptical ofdemocracy.After the Frenchbourgeois revolution, itbecameclear thatdemocracyis theway itismorereasonable political andsocialorganization ofsociety, the stategovernment.In thenineteenthcentury. in ademocracyhaditsups anddowns,but ingeneral, to itwasnegative.After thepublication of theAlexis deTocqueville'sbook (>1805-1859)"Democracy in America"began toformpositiveattitudes todemocracy.In theearlytwentiethcentury.practicallynotimeleft politicaldoctrines,includingBolshevism andfascism,whichisbased intheirideologicalconstructionsnotbelaidfordemocracy allsorts.After the 1917 revolution in Russiawasproclaimed adictatorship of theproletariatas ahighertype ofproletariandemocracy.

>Greatsignificance instrengthening themodernnorms ofdemocracyplayedDeclaration ofHumanRightsadoptedby theUN (1948),HelsinkiMeeting (1975), thehumanrightsmovement inpost-socialistcountries, theParismeeting of theheads of Europeangovernments andadoptedits ">Charter ofParisfor a New Europe " (1990) [5, 421].

>One of thebasicprinciples ofdemocracyis theprinciple ofmajority.Majorityruleis theessence of thedoctrine ofpopularsovereignty,underwhich thepeopledeclaredsource ofsupreme power in ademocraticsociety.Democracypresupposes freeactivities of all politicalparties,socio-politicalassociations,organizations,movements,actingwithin thelaw.Fordemocraticgovernmentcharacterizedbymulti.

>Animportantattribute ofdemocracy - theprinciple ofseparation ofpowers in thesystem ofgovernment.According tothisprinciple oflegislative,executive andjudiciaryareseparate andquiteindependent ofoneanother.However,theyconstantlyinteract andcounterbalanceoneanother. Theindispensablecondition ofdemocracyistransparency of allactivities of statebodies, politicalparties and publicorganizations. Theindependent status of the media -isalsoanattribute of ademocraticsociety.

>In ademocraticsociety asignificantrole in thesystem ofgovernmentisgiven tolocalgovernment,is arationaldivision ofcompetence andpowers ofvariouslevels ofgovernment.Thatlocalgovernmentclosest to thepeople and ofitsactiondepends on thedailylives ofcitizens.Therefore, thedegree ofdemocraticsocietyismeasuredby thefact that the status andscope oflocalauthorities,aswellasitslevel ofaccessibilityforpeople [1, 125].

>Inourworkwearenotable toexamine indetail all theconcepts ofdemocracy.Therefore,wewillcoveronlythoseconcepts thatareassociatedwith thetheory andpractice ofmoderndemocracy thatgoesback to the XVII-XVIIIcenturies.

>Doctrine ofliberal andpluralisticdemocracy

>In publicconsciousness ofdemocracyisequatedwithdemocracy.Thisform ofgovernment interms of themechanism ofexpression ofpopularsovereigntyservesas adirect andrepresentativedemocracy. Thefirstinvolves thedirectexpression ofassociations ofindividuals -governmentofficials - orthose of the life ofthisassociation,suchas thereferendum.Apparatus of powerwilltake therole oforganizer andguarantor of thegeneralwill.Itisdeterminedbypeople powertakes the politicaldecision,specifying andprotecting the publicwill.Representativedemocracyassumes that themaindecisions takenby theauthorizedrepresentatives of thePeople'sAssembly (>parliament, theNationalAssembly, theCongress)areelectedgovernmentofficials.Thisrepresentativeinstitutions,theiractivitiesarecontrolledbyassociations [7, 215].

>Differenttheoreticalsolutioncontradictionsbetween theideal ofdemocracy anditsrealityismeaning theexistence ofdiverseconcepts ofdemocracy.Historically, thefirstsuchconcept andform ofitspracticalimplementationwas aclassicalliberaldemocracy,whichis themostcomprehensivemeasureisbased on theprinciples ofdemocracy (>equality,freedom,popularparticipation in stategovernment,majoritarism,civic consensus,electedgovernment,protection ofminorities).

Themainidea ofliberalism - theidea ofindividualfreedom.According toherliberaldemocracy to theforefront ofputtingcivillibertieslike privacy ofanindividual'sindependencefrom political power.Ensuringcivilfreedomisbasedprimarily on theimplementation ofindividualrights andfreedoms of theindividual: theright to life andpersonalimmunity,freedom andresistance toviolence,propertyrights and freeeconomicactivity,freedom of private life - theinviolability ofhome and privacy ofcorrespondence,freedom ofmovement andchoiceaccommodation andso on.But thepresence ofindividual politicalrights andfreedomsgiveshim theopportunity toparticipate in theexercise of state power toinfluence the state tomeet thepersonal and commoninterests andneeds.

>Liberaldemocracydoesnotdeny thewill of thepeopledirectly,butpreferrepresentativedemocracy thatallows themostcompleteway tocombine theideal ofdemocracy and thepossibility ofitspracticalimplementation.Accordingly,democracyunderstoodas aresponsiblegovernment,governmentcanmakedecisions andbearresponsibilityforthem. Themainelements ofrepresentativedemocracy,constitutionality anddefinedlimits of politicaldomination.Socalledliberaldemocracystill aconstitutionaldemocracy inwhich thewill of thepeopleshowndonotfully andopenly,directly,butdelegated torepresentatives whoare in theprocess of politicaldecision-making thatwillexpressthemselves andunderownresponsibility.

Theessence ofliberaldemocracy inconcentratedformwasreflected in theproposed U. P.S.PresidentAbrahamLincoln'sformula:government of thepeople,by thepeople,for thepeople (>government of thepeople,electedby thepeople andforpeople).

>Characterizedbyemphasis onindividualfreedom ofliberalismleads tosocialpolarization ofsociety, theaggravation ofclassstruggle,generates politicalinstability, etc. [6].

>Designed toovercome theshortcomings ofliberalismconcept of apluralisticdemocracy (>fromLat.Pluralis -plural)as akind ofmodernliberaldemocracy.Such ademocracyisbased onconsideration of all theplurality,diversity ofsocialinterests. Themainfeatureisits opennature ofdecision-makingthroughrepresentativegovernment.Adoption of theauthorities orthosemakingundersuchconditionsis theresult ofinteraction andcompetitionamongvarious politicalforces,especially politicalparties anddiverseinterestgroups.

Theconcept of apluralisticdemocratic politicalsystem ofsocietyisconsideredas amechanism thatbalances theinterests ofclass,ethnic,demographic,professional,regional,religious andsimilargroups andorganizations.Each ofthemaffects thepolicy-making,butnonehave amonopoly.Theredribnennya political powerbetween state and publicinstitutions.Varioussocialinterests, theinterests ofworkerszokremaisocloselyconsidered.If itisanysocial groupbelieves thatwhatpoliticsdoesnotcorrespond toitsinterests, ithas theability topursuean opendiscussion ofrelevantissues andtake thenecessary politicaldecisions.

>conceptdemocracy politicalproletarian

Theconcept of apluralistdemocracywas themostpowerful in the60's -early70's of XXcentury.Atfirstglance,pluralisticdemocracy - ademocracyfor all.However, itisnotdevoid ofsomedrawbacks.One ofthemis thatfor theinterests andneeds ofcertainsocialgroupssuchasyouth,women or thepoorest, a realequalopportunitiesfortheirparticipation in theexercise of state power tothesegroups toprovidecertainbenefits andprivileges.Butfixinganyprivileges andbenefitsforthese orthosesocialgroupscontradictsone of thebasicprinciples ofdemocracy -equality of allcitizensbefore thelaw.Expansion ofactualequalityjeopardizes afundamentalprinciple ofdemocracyasfreedom.

>Inaddition, theconcept ofpluralisticdemocracyabsolyutyzuyeopportunitiesfor politicalrepresentation ofsocialintereststhrough politicalparties andorganizationsasdiverseinterestgroups.Ordinarymembers ofparties andNGOsreallyplay asecondaryrole inthem, and themaindecisionsadoptedbytheirleaders, andnotalwaysfor thesamerank andfilemembers.

>Finally, thefacilityitselfisunrealconception ofpluralistdemocracy that thewholepopulationwillberepresented in theparties andinterestgroups,theseassociationsareequal intheir politicalinfluence. Thegreatestinfluence onpolicy incountrieswithdevelopedmarketeconomieshave avariety of businessentities,especiallynational,sectoral andcross-industryassociations.Theyhavetremendousmaterial andfinancialresources toinfluence theauthorities.Appreciableinfluence onpolitics andtradeunionshave,whichare themostmassiveorganizations ofemployees.

>One of theattempts toget out of thecontradictions of thetheory ofpluralistdemocracyis thetheoryformulatedby R.Dahlpolyarchy - amultiplicity of powercenters, andhence theelitegroups in ademocraticsociety.Thisimplies thatinstead of asinglecenter ofsovereign powershouldbeplurality ofsuchcenters,none ofwhichcannotbefullysovereign.Democraticis asystemwhere thegovernmentdispersed power incontrast to thefew - thedictatorship.

R.Dahlbelieves that theterm ">democracy"issuitableonlyfor thecharacteristics ofanidealsociety.Valid statesystem thatapproaches theideal state - apolyarchy.Ofcourse,such asystemisnotwithoutfaultscomparedwithdemocracy.But itisbetterthanmostunlimitedauthority or powerelite.Overall,according toRobertDahl,Democracy andautocracyismore orlesstheoreticaleducation.Infinalform,theyactuallyneverbeenimplemented.

>Polyarchydoctrinecomesfrom thefact that,according to therequirements ofliberaldemocracy, consensus and politicalequalitymustbeactive andsuchdevelopingcountries.Todothis,everycitizenshouldhaveaninalienableright toformulate anddemonstratepubliclywhomheprefers.Thatiswhatincreases thepossibility ofguaranteeingequality in thegovernance ofsociety.

>Polyarchyenhances andcomplements theprinciples ofdemocracy. Office of themajorityisdue to theimprovement ofpeople'srepresentation,strongerguarantees of minorityrights, theuse ofelectoral andotherdevices to control themajority ofrepresentatives,eliminatingvariouskinds of politicalinequality [4].

>Concept ofcorporate political science, andothervarieties ofproletariandemocracy

>Growing politicalinfluence of businessassociations andtradeunionsled to theemergence of theconcept ofcorporatedemocracy. Corporation (>fromLat.Corporatio - Association) - acollection ofindividualsunitedthroughguild,caste,commercial andotherinterests.In Westerncountriesknowncorporations,includingjointstockcompanies,tradeassociations andorganizations oflocalauthorities (>municipalities).According to theconcept ofcorporatedemocracypolicyshouldbemadewith the state and the limitednumber ofmostpopular andinfluentialorganizations,especially businessassociations andtradeunionsas toexpress theinterests of thegeneralpopulation.Thispolicywascalled thepolicy ofsocialpartnership andtripartism.Inmany Westerncountriescreatedbased onrepresentation ofentrepreneurs,tradeunions and the statespecialtrypartystskibodies thatdefine thebasicparameters ofsocio-economicstrategy of the state.

Thecontent of theconcept ofcorporatedemocracyisclose to theconcept ofpluralisticdemocracy. Themaindifferencebetweenthemis thatpluralisticdemocracyinvolves politicalrepresentation of all thediversity ofsocialinterests, andcorporatedemocracyis alimit ofonly themostpowerfulunions.Ifproponents ofpluralistdemocracybelieve that theoptimalimpact onnationalpolicieshave avaried group ofcompetinginterests,corporatesupporters ofdemocracyrecognizesuchanimpactonly a limitednumber oforganizations thatdonotcompete,butcooperateunder state control.Undersuchconditions,corporateacquireexclusiverights to politicalrepresentation,notonlymembers oftheseassociations andothergroups.Given that in Westerncountriesmorethanhalf ofemployeesarenotmembers oftradeunions, itmeans thattheyhavetheirown politicalrepresentation incorporatedemocracy.

Themainfeature of theMarxistnotion ofdemocracyis toconsider it incloseconnectionwith thematerialconditions ofsociety anditsclassstructure.Marxismbelieves that theclasssocietyisanexpression ofdemocracydictatorshipeconomicallyrulingclass.Underexploitativesystem -slave,feudal andbourgeois -servedas theinstitutions ofdemocracy andserve theclass, inwhosehandswere andare themeans ofproduction:slave,feudal andbourgeois.

>Marxismat thesametimebelieves thatbourgeoisdemocracyis themostdevelopedhistoricaltype ofdemocracyisexploitativesociety thatputan end toabsolutism andformallydeclared themostimportantrights andfreedoms ofindividuals.

Thehighesttype of politicaldemocracy,Marxismrecognizessocialist orproletariandemocracy. Themaindifferencefrom thebourgeoissocialistdemocracyisseen that itis the power ofmost ofsociety -workers (thedictatorship of theproletariat),directedagainst theexploiting minority,whilebourgeoisdemocracyis the power asmall minority - theowners of themeans ofproduction.Socialistdemocracyisbased on publicownership ofmeans ofproduction,serving theeconomicbasisforestablishingsocialequality ofpeople andtheirtruefreedomasliberationfromcapitalistexploitation.Itisbelieved thatunlike thebourgeoisdemocraticsocialistdemocracyisnotonlyproclaims thefreedom of political andsocio-economicrights,butalsoguaranteesthemsafe.Alongwith therepresentativedemocracy ofsocialismbyusingdifferentforms ofdirectdemocracy,whichfindsexpression in theactivity ofNGOs in thesystem of control, inpractice,most publicdiscussion ofdraftlaws, etc.

The realsocialismestablishedbyauthority of thepeopledonot, andabsolute power ofone political party,whichisdue tonon-democraticconstruction of the partyisturningintoabsolute power of partyleadership.Socialistdemocracydenies theseparation ofpowers. Executiveauthoritiesthoughpopularlyelected,butunderstrict party control [6].

>Besidesthese, indemocratictheory,therearealsootherconcepts ofdemocracy:market,plebistsytarna consensus (the community) andothers. Aseparate groupiselitistconception ofdemocracyasanattempt tocombineincompatibleatfirstglance, thetheory ofdemocracy andtheory ofelites.

>Sinceconcordantpluralisttheory ofdemocracyelitistconception ofdemocracy. The politicaleliteisdefinedasanindependent,privileged group orset ofgroupsdirectlylinked todomination orpressure on thegovernment.Predecessors ofmoderndemocracywereelitistPlato,Karleyl,Nietzsche andothers.Modernclassicalconcept of theelitewereformulated in theearlytwentiethcentury. V.Pareto, G.Dep,P.Michels. Themost commontraitssharedbyelitetheoryare:

>division ofsocietyintoelite and mass;

>interpretation of politicalinequalityas thebasis ofsocial life;

>knowledge of powersuppliesdue to the ">chosen minority;

>consideration ofsocialhistoryas aset ofcycles,characterizedby thedomination ofcertaintypes ofelites.

>Thus,elitistconcept ofdemocracysays that theideal ofdemocracy inmoderntimes (>still)notimplementedsubstantially. Thepeoplerepresenting political power in therulingelite [2].

>One of thevarieties ofelitismadversarialmodelis thetheory ofdemocracyplebistsytarnoyi M.Weber.According to thelogic ofreasoningveberskyhrepresentation inparliament ofindividualindependentdeputies in thedevelopment ofliberaldemocracyisgraduallybeingreplacedby politicalparties. Thelatter, inturn,produce asingledirection andestablishstrictdiscipline,becoming abureaucraticorganization. Powerremains in theparties inthose whoregularlyworked in the partyapparatus andeventuallyconcentrates inprofessionalpoliticians.This partysets themachine controlmechanismovertheirsupporters,includinghere andmembers ofparliament. Theresultis asystemwherepartiesdominateparliament and theleadersdominate the party. ">Thiscircumstance, -noted M.Weber -is ofparticularimportancefor theselection ofleaders of the party.Becomes theleader ofonlyoneparticular andacross thehead ofparliament whoissubjectmachine.Inotherwords, thecreation ofsuchmachinesmeansdominationplebistsytarnoyidemocracy" [1, 218]

>Asanalternativeagainst theelitistconception ofdemocracyis thetheorypartitsypatsiynoyidemocracy.By ">partitsypatsiyeyu inwestern political scienceunderstood allkinds ofparticipation (>voluntary andinvoluntary) in political life toinfluence andpressure ondecision-making power. Theauthorsinterpret theconcept of thenecessity ofmostpeoplenotonly inelectioncampaigns,referendums,but inotherkinds of politicalprocess,including theformation of powergroups and thenomination of politicalleaders.German politicalscientistsHuhhenberher B. and D.Nolenpartitsypatsiynoyiconsider thetheory ofdemocracyasone of thefollowingcriticaldemocratictheory initscenter -ananalysis of politicalrealityfrom theperspective of theideal ofindividualself-determination andautonomy of theindividualtargeting [5, 423].

Theconcept ofdemocracyiscloselyadjacentpoliarhichnoyicommunitarianmodel ofdemocracy,ie amodel ofdemocraticdevelopment inseveralcountries,differentpolysyllabicnature ofsocialstructure inwhichsocietyisdividedintomanysegments.Thismodel ofsocietydiffersby twomainfeatures:verticalsegmentation of thepopulationintodifferentlinguistic,ethnic,racial orideological community;institutionalize theprocess ofinteraction,whichisat theelitecommunities.

>Theoreticalmodel ofcommunitariandemocracywasdevelopedby Americanresearcher A.LeyphartomDutchorigin.Based onempirical research incomparativepolitics politicalexperience ofsomecountries (Austria,Belgium, Canada, theNetherlands andSwitzerland) AGLeyphartquestioned thetypology of politicalsystems G.Almond,associatedmainlywithhomogeneous orheterogeneouscultures.IfAnglo-Americansystemischaracterizedbyuniformity, Europeancontinentalsystemsdifferfragmentation of politicalculture. Thelattermaybe afactor in politicalinstability in thesociety [3, 284].

>In thekaleidoscope of politicaltheories ofdemocracythereisalso theeconomictheory ofdemocracy.Itisbased onimagerightsfullyinformed,talented andactrationally toachievemaximumbenefitforthemselves.Economicdemocracy - arealm ofmarket relations,whichreduced the political and power relations.Liberal-mindedtheorists andpoliticiansconnectedtietogetherdemocracy andmarket. AmericanPresidentBillClintoncalledmodernwesterndemocracymarketdemocracy.

>Thus, theanalysis of contemporarytheoreticalconcepts ofdemocracyshows thediversity ofapproaches to thedefinition ofdemocracy.Eachdirectionhas aconceptual andnormativecharacter, thatcharacterizesthis or thatkind ofdemocracy in theideal.However,theoreticalanalysisbased onactualexperience -anempiricalapproach [7, 218].


>Conclusions

>Democracy - themostcivilized anddeveloped a politicalprofile.Mostmodernpopulation of the worlddeeply andconsciouslyperceivedsupportdemocraticvalues andideals.Todevelop,democraticforms of political lifeneededsocial,economic andculturalbase. Withoutthem in the politicalprocessisundemocraticforms.Thisis -first, a highlevel ofeconomicdevelopment,diversity ofownership, thepresence of adevelopedmarket,competitiveproducers.Infact,democracyitselfresembles a politicalmarketwithitscompetition ofideas,programs andpositions.Second, a highdegree of politicalculture.Culture andsociety ingeneral,especially in political life,is apowerfulcatalystfordemocraticprocesses.

>When allpossibledeviationsfrom thetrendamongleading publicincreasinglyconfirms theunderstanding of theuniversality of theprinciples andvalues ofliberaldemocracy. Therealization thatdemocracy -isnotonly thetraditionalset ofprinciples ofparliamentarism,pluralism andmultipartysystem.Thisis thefirst realdemocracy.Lastcomesonlywhendemocracygrowsfrom thebottom,notimposedfromabove,when adeputyforeach ofimperativemandateisactuallyunitedby commoninterests group ofpeople -self-governingcollective labor,governmentcommitteesneighborhoodassociation ofconsumers,tradeunions, etc.Allthisrequiresanappropriate political andcivicculture inparticular,genuinecivilsociety andmanyotherconditionswhichprovides alot ofeffortby the politicalforces ofnationalrevival.

>With Ukraine,hereas inotherpost-totalitarian,post-communistcountries, thestrengthening ofliberaldemocracy -takingintoaccountnationaltraditions - along anddifficultLiberaldemocracyisimpossiblewithout thedevelopment ofanappropriate politicalelite toensureitsinteractionwith theinstitutions ofdemocracy.

>Discrepancybetweeninstitutional andproceduralareas ofpopularculture,society or itshape the politicalvaluesas theperiodiccrises indevelopeddemocracies, and theinconsistency andcontradictions ofdemocratization intransitionalsocieties.Similarly,manyexistingmodels ofdemocracy or toemphasizesome of theaboveaspects ofdemocracy, or oncertainvalues (>egvalue of politicalcompetitionJ.Schumpeter).


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