Реферат Positive and negative values

>Contents

1.Conformism,conformalbehaviorconformality

2. Thestudyconformism

3.Positive andnegativevalues

>List ofsourcesused

>conformismadaptation powersubordination


1.Conformism,conformalbehaviorconformality

>Personality inits publicnatureisactive,particularly ontheirinterests.But on therequirements ofothersdealingwithactivitymuchmoredifficult.Under theinfluence ofsociety, state,traditions, publicopinion,authority ofelders,social group oritsleader,underdirect orindirectpressurefromotherpeople'spersonalitycan controlitsactivity,itsdirectchannel to therequirements ofthoseentities or publicinstitutions toadaptsome oftheirinterests theinterests ofothers, tobecomecompliant,ductility andevenhumble, thatispassive totake theinterests ofother lifeposition.Thisform ofexpression ofindividualpositions,thereispassivity,nekrytychnist,pliability,prystosovnytstvoabout theimpact onherenvironment,calledconformism.

>Effect of groupmostoftensoldthroughconformismas aphenomenon of grouppressure.Conformismiscontinually insmallgroups towork ingroups ofinterest infamilies andaffects theindividual lifesettings and changebehavior.

>At thelevel ofeverydayconsciousness,thisconceptispositive,negative andneutralvalue.

>Conformism (>Latinconformis -like,respectively) -passiveacceptanceprystosovnytske groupstandards ofbehavior, theindisputablerecognition ofexistingorders,rules andregulations,unconditionalworship of theauthorities.

>Thisinterpretationcoversvariousconformism,thoughoutwardlysimilar,phenomena: - thelack of aperson'sownviews,beliefs,characterweakness,prystosovnytstvo -uniformity inbehavior,with theconsent of theindividualviews,norms,values ofmostpeople who surroundhim - theresult ofpressure groupnorms onindividual whoas aresult ofthispressurebegins toact,think,feel thesamewayasothermembers of the group.

>Conformismcanexpress:

1)prystosovnytskeattitude tootherrequirements, ofcoursetrustworthy,strongpersonality (>personality-authors ofconformism andPackaging);

2) thesametreatment to therequirements oflarge,medium orsmallsocial group towhich itbelongs (>intragroupconformity);

3) thesametreatment to therequirements ofsociety,itsinstitutions, thedominantsocialgroups,government (public orsocialconformity).Often torefer todifferentmanifestations of thephenomenon ofconformismuse theterm ">conformalbehavior" and ">conformism".Becauseconformityisbroadersocio-psychologicalphenomenon, inmostcasestudiesreferredConformalbehavior andconformism. Thecontents oftheseconceptspoints to apurelypsychologicalcharacteristics ofpositionsregarding theindividualpositions of the group:heaccepts orrejects the grouprecognizednorms,standards,values,properties.

>Conformal (>Latinconformis -like)behavior -humanaction,whichismanifested initscompliance of real orperceivedpressuregroups to change thesettings andactionsaccording toposition the community towhichsheisinvolved.

Theresponse of theindividual to grouppressurecanbeverbal andbehavioral.Forsocialpsychologyisimportant, orchangingopinion ofanindividualbecause ofwhathesawsomething in (ormadechanges in hiscognitivestructure), oroutside itonlyshowschanges, andactuallyownopinionhasnotchanged.

>Conformism - atendency ofanindividualsubject to theopinion of themajority group, real orimagined grouppressure.

>Conformismshowswhereconflict ofopinionbetween theperson and theposition of the group.Tag itis to changeattitudes andbehavior ofanindividualunder theterms of themajority.Byessentiallyconformalitycanbeexternal (>individualonlyoutsideopiniondemonstratesconquering group,continuing todo itinternallyresistance) andinternal (realconversion ofindividualinstallations of theprimaryposition of theindividual infavor of the group,mostassimilation of histhoughts).Depending on thetype ofperson groupis thenegativism -resistance to grouppressure todemonstratebehaviors oropinions thatcontradict theposition of the group.Often theconcept of ">negativism"isused in thesense that theconcept and ">nonconformism.Sometimes itseparatescontent,describing thenegativismasdemonstration ofbehavior orthoughtcontrary to theviews of themajority,regardless ofwhetherthismajorityisright, andnonconformism -as ademonstration ofthought orbehavior,based ontheirexperience,regardless of theopinions orbehavior ofmost group .As theantithesisconformismuse theterm ">nonconformnist" (>Latinfor non -not,conformis -like,respectively) -completedisagreement,violation ofanynorms andvalues of the group.Tag itconsidered theobjectionclaims,expectations,rules,orderssociety.However,interpretationnonconformismnotknownasanalternative, andone of themanifestations ofconformism.Measure ofhumancausedconformism anddepends

First, ofsignificanceforherattitudesurrounding - howimportant itisforher, thelowerlevel ofconformism;

>Second, theauthority ofthose whoexpress thevariousviews in the group - thehighertheir status andauthorityfor the group, thehigherconformalitymembers of the group;

>Thirdly,conformismdepends on thenumber ofpeopleexpressingone oranotherposition oftheirunanimity;-fourthly, themeasureisdeterminedconformismage andgenderrights -women ingeneralmoreconformalthanmen, andchildren -thanolderadults.

>Infact,comfort -somethingcontroversial,primarilybecauseaccommodating theindividualdoesnotalwaysindicate real change in hisperception.

>Thereare twovariants ofindividualbehavior:

-Thatis,whenopinionischangingas aresult ofindividualbelief insomething;

-Motivated -ifheshowschanges.

>Therearethreelevels ofconformalhumanbehavior:

-submission (>impact grouphasanexternalnature,durationconformalbehavioris limited to aparticularsituation);

-Identification (>exists in twoforms,onecancompletely orpartiallyassimilatethemselves toother groupmembers orparticipants ofinteractionexpectedfromeachspecificbehavior,trying tojustifythesemutualexpectations);

-internalization (>related to thevalue of theperson) inthissituation,humanbehaviorisrelativelyindependent ofexternalinfluences,because theviews oropinions ofothersjoined in thevaluesystem of theperson.

>Conformismisalsoconsideredas afunction ofthreetypes ofinfluence.

First,an informationconformality of the group,whereopinions of the groupisconsideredadequatereflection ofreality.

>Second,normativeconformism of the groupwhen apersonisinterested toestimate the group.

>Thirdly,normativeconformism of theexperimenter.Itariseswhen theinterests of theguineafocusedprimarily onassessment of theno group, andexperimenter.

2. Thestudyconformism

>Socialpsychologyforseveraldecadesstudying the problem ofconformism.In themid 30's of XXcentury. AmericanPsychologistMuzaferSheriffinvestigated in vitro theformation of groupnorms andtheirimpact onpeopleusingso-calledavtokinetychnyyeffect (>opticalillusion ofmovement of thefixedpoints of light in adarkvisualfield). Theresult ofthis andsimilarexperimentshaveled to thefollowingconclusions: - Theindividualuncertaintybymatching andcomparingtheirownviews onothers,inclined toagree,as arule,with themajority toadapt to it - a commonreferencesystem,formed in thepresence ofotherscontinues toinfluence theviews andopinions of theindividual,evenwithoutthissource ofinfluence. M.Cherifnotactuallyresearchedconformism. Theobjectivewas tostudy theprocess offormingsocialnorms in alaboratory, andclarifyvariousaspectsnaviyuvanostirights.In theearly 50's of XXcentury. AmericanresearcherSolomonAshdrewattention to the problem of grouppressure,using amethod ">reasonablygroups. Aconsiderableintensification of research anddebateabout thenature ofconformismas asocialphenomenon thattookplace in thecomingdecades,socialpsychologyhasenrichedmanyconcreteconclusions.Inparticular itwasfound that a highdegree ofconformismis theresult ofunderdevelopedintellect,lowself andothers.Itwasthenconcluded that apersoncanbe aconformist or anonconformist.Sothereare twooptionsfortreatment ofpersonality to the groupopinion: ordisagreement,alienation, orfullacceptance of it.Alsoalleged that thedegree ofconformismdepends on thesituation, thecomposition andstructure of the group.However,thesefactorshavenotbeenelucidated (>presumablybecause of thenature oflaboratorygroups thatarenotallowed toconsider thesignificancefor theindividual groupthought).Negativeroleplayedbyabstraction andparticipating in theexperiment thatrevealed thelack of information ontheirindividualcharacteristics,socialcharacteristics (>values,beliefs, etc.).Andmostmodelvariations ofbehaviorwassomewhatsimplistic,since ittakesintoaccountonly twotypes:conformal anddemonstrate the non.Infact, real life in a groupmaybeassociatedwith thethirdtype ofbehavior,based on aconsciousrecognition ofindividualcodes andstandardsgroups.Despitetheseshortcomings,Asha P.S.techniquewasused insubsequentexperiments,asmanyscientistsconsider it amodel ofscientificcreativity,unequivocallyrecognizingitshumanisticorientation.Furtherinvestigationkonkretyzuvalyfactorsunderlyingconformalbehavior,influencing it anddetermine thelevel ofconformism.This - aconflict (real,imaginary)between theindividual and group;pressure (>influence)groupsthroughevaluation,offensivejokes, etc.Mostunanimity,solidaritygroups,especially thesituation,especially therelationship ofindividuals andgroups,especially theresponse topressuregroups;tender andagecharacteristics,individualcharacteristics of theindividual,social andculturalfeatures, thesignificance of thesituationfor theindividual andothers. AmericansocialpsychologistMortonDeutsch andHaroldGerarddiscovered anddescribed thekinds ofnormative andinformationalinfluence on a group ofindividuals.

>Regulatoryimpact onanindividualassociatedwith groupnorms. Thepointis thatmost ofexertingpressure, andheropinionisseenasrepresentative of the groupnorm.Regulatoryrequirementssurrounding the group ofpeoplefromearlychildhood: itislearnedfollow groupnorms andrespectthem.

Information on theimpact of theindividualinvolveschangingindividualpositions on the groupdue to thefact thatanindividualapplies to the groupas asource of information.If theregulatoryimpact ofchanging thesystem ofinterpersonalrelationships, the information -determinesaspirationsaremore orlessadequateassessment ofreality.

ForeignresearchersFestinher L., M.Deutsch and H.Gerardare twotypes ofconformalbehavior:

•externalsubordination, thatis theconsciousadaptation to theopinions of a group.Thusthereare twowell-being of theindividual:

1)submissionisaccompaniedbyanacuteinternalconflict;

2)adaptationoccurswithoutanyconspicuousinternalconflict;

•internalsubordination,whenindividualsperceive theopinion of the groupasitsown andfollowsthemoutside.Use thefollowingtypes of domesticsubordination:

1)makingthoughtlesswrongopinions of a group on a ">majorityisalwaysright";

2) theadoption of the group,but theuse ofyourlogicexplanation ofchoice.

3.Positive andnegativevalues

>Conformalpersonshowweakerintellectthanindependent,theyaremorecharacteristic ofdogmatism,stereotypethinking,unclearthoughts andutterances.Humanmotivation andemotionalfunctions ofconformalentitycharacterizedbyinsufficientstrength ofcharacter,inability to controloneself instressfulsituations.In thefield ofconsciousness,theysufferfrominferioritycomplex, andexhibit relationswithotherauthoritarianism,concerns the affairs ofothers.Conformismas ameasure ofsubordinationrights groupnorms andrequirementsisnot afeature ofpersonality,interpersonal relations andpropertyrelated to thelevel of the group, thenature ofitsactivities, thesituation in thepresence of a group ofindividuals thatdeviatefrom thegeneralopinion, andothers.Manyresearchersbelieveconformismnegativephenomenon,whichischaracterizedby aconsciousadaptation torealityevenprystosovnytstvo.theirestimatesbased on thebelief thatconformismareinherentlynotas apsychologicalphenomenon,asethical.

>Butopponentsargue thatconformismhasimportantfunctions in theprocess ofsocialization ofpersonality,itsintegrationinto thesocial community.Quitepeculiarviewsexpressed on thephenomenon ofconformism,which,unlikeconformism,somescientistsconsidervaluable,ie itisbeyondvaluation.Animportantdifferencefromconformismconformismtheysee thatconformismcanmanifestnotonlyat thelevel ofindividualdifferences,but on thelevel of groupsituation.Knownalsoattempts tointerpret theconformality to groupnorms insomecasespositive, inothers -as anegativefactor in thefunctioning of the group.According to thesupporters ofthisview,sometimesevenconformismcanstimulatealtruisticbehavior orbehavior thatisconsistentwith themoralstandards of theindividual.However,adoption of groupnorms topursue privategainqualifiesasprystosovnytstvo.Insuchcircumstancesconformalitycausesvariousadverseeffects.

>Thus, theconformality to groupnorms insomesituations apositivefactor,whileothers -negative.Compliancewithcertainestablishedstandards ofconductisimportant, andsometimesjustneedforeffective groupaction.Anotherthing,when theagreementwith thenorms of the groupassuming thecharacter ofextractingpersonalgain andbecomesprystosovnytstvoregulatorypressure (>influence)isentering adifficultinteractionwith theopportunities andresources thatareavailable to the minority group.


>List ofsourcesused

1) N.KornevSocial Psychology:Handbookforstudents.Education.teach.bookmark. - K.:BV, 1995. - 303sec.

2)Lembryk -Orban, L. E.Socialpsychology: in twobooks: thetextbookforuniversitystudents. - K.:Lybid, 2004 -Book. 1:Personality andSocial Psychologycommunication. - 2004. – 573p.

3)TruhinIASocialpsychology ofcommunication:Manual. - K.:textbooks, 2005. - 335sec.

4)VT SystemCibasocialpsychology: amanual. - K.:textbooks, 2006. - 327sec.


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